C4 Plants Adaptation to High Levels of CO2 and to …
This is the reason why at temperatures below ca
A) C4 and CAM photosynthesis are considered to be coping mechanisms for plants found in dry, arid climates. Tiny openings called stomata are located on the surface of leaves. When surrounding guard cells allow these holes to open, CO2 enters and H2O evaporates. If the stomata of plants in arid climates opened during the day, the plant would dehydrate because the water would evaporate very quickly. For this to not happen, CAM plants only open their stomata at night and incorporate CO2 into organic acids. During the day, they close their stomata and the CO2 is released from the organic acids for use in the Calvin Cycle. Similarly, C4 plants also have to cope with arid climates. Their stomata open in the day, and they incorporate CO2 into four carbon compounds in mesophyll cells (three carbon compounds are the most common). Then, the 4C compounds are exported into a deeper layer of the leaf called bundle-sheath cells. Here, the CO2 used in the Calvin Cycle is released.
B) There are several differences in the process of photosynthesis within C3, C4, and CAM plants. For example, a three carbon compound is found in C3 plants, whereas C4 plants use a four carbon compound. Another difference is that C3 plants use only mesophyll cells for the light-dependent reactions, and C4 plants use both mesophyll cells and bundle-sheath cells for the reaction. Finally, C3 plants open their stomata during the day, and CAM plants open theirs during the night.
C) Photorespiration occurs when rubisco attaches to O2 instead of CO2. This is ultimately bad for plants because no ATP or sugar is produced, but it still requires ATP in order to undergo this process. Although C4 and CAM photosynthesis is different than C3 photosynthesis, it is still possible for them to go through photorespiration, but it occurs at a slower rate compared to C3 photorespiration.
PPT - Organisms Capture & Store Free Energy for Use …
A) Both C4 and CAM photosynthesis are considered to be coping mechanisms because they function differently from C3 plants due to C4 and CAM plants living in arid climates. This causes the plants to lose more water during the day than C3 plants. The C4 and CAM photosynthesis close their stomata during the day to prevent the loss of water. Stomata exchange gas such as, carbon dioxide, water, and oxygen when it is open. Instead, the C4 and CAM photosynthesis occur during the night when they are less likely to lose water.
B) Although C3, C4, and CAM plants all perform photosynthesis, they have some differences in how the reaction happens. One difference is, C3 plants carry out photosynthesis in a cell called the mesophyll cell. While C4 plants complete photosynthesis in a bundle sheath cell. Another difference is, C3 pants produces a three carbon molecule out of carbon dioxide and C4 plants produce a four carbon molecule. Lastly, C3 plants keep their stomata open during the day allowing them to collect carbon dioxide. Due to CAM plants' climate, they must keep their stomata closed so they do not dry out, as said in part A. Rather than opening it during the day, they open it at night.
C) Photorespiration is also known as the oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle, using the enzyme, Rubisco, to oxygenate RuBP. Knowing that C4 and CAM plants do release carbon dioxide they do photorespirate. Even though these plants function at night, they still do metabolize through photosynthesis and photorespiration.