C4 and CAM Photosynthesis - Mrs. Swartz's Biology Site

A) C4 and CAM plants are considered to be coping mechanisms because they are considered to have photosynthetic adaptations, which allow them to live in the environment they thrive in. C4 plants complete photosynthesis in two types of cells, bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells. They have an alternate mode of carbon fixation, which forms a four-carbon compound instead of a three-carbon compound. CAM plants have palisade cells, which is where they complete photosynthesis. In order to do this, they complete crassilacean acid metabolism(CAM) and produce organic acids, which they store.
B) C3 plants complete photosynthesis differently than C4 and CAM plants. C3 plants rely on their mesophyll cells to complete photosynthesis, whereas C4 plants use bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells and CAM plants use palisade cells. In terms of products, C3 plants produce three-carbon compounds, C4 plants produce four-carbon compounds, and CAM plants produce organic acids. These three plants have different "prime" operation times. C3 plants tend like cool weather, C4 plants favor the warm weather, and CAM plants live in the desert climate, but favor the cooler night conditions, because they open their stomata's at night to save water and prevent CO2 from entering the leaves. Aside from this, C4 plants complete photosynthesis in two cells, but CAM plants use the same cell, but cycle at different times.
C) Photorespiration occurs in both C4 and CAM plants, but happens at a slower rate than that of C3 plants. To complete photorespiration, O2 is consumed, CO2 is fixed, and then it is released. This process drives RUBPcase reactions, which is an example of an enzyme fed reaction. These plants actually produce sugar when completing photorespiration.

C4 Plants Adaptation to High Levels of CO2 and to …

Why are C4 and CAM photsynthesis considered to be coping mechanisms used ..

This is the reason why at temperatures below ca

A) C4 and CAM photosynthesis are considered to be coping mechanisms for plants found in dry, arid climates. Tiny openings called stomata are located on the surface of leaves. When surrounding guard cells allow these holes to open, CO2 enters and H2O evaporates. If the stomata of plants in arid climates opened during the day, the plant would dehydrate because the water would evaporate very quickly. For this to not happen, CAM plants only open their stomata at night and incorporate CO2 into organic acids. During the day, they close their stomata and the CO2 is released from the organic acids for use in the Calvin Cycle. Similarly, C4 plants also have to cope with arid climates. Their stomata open in the day, and they incorporate CO2 into four carbon compounds in mesophyll cells (three carbon compounds are the most common). Then, the 4C compounds are exported into a deeper layer of the leaf called bundle-sheath cells. Here, the CO2 used in the Calvin Cycle is released.

B) There are several differences in the process of photosynthesis within C3, C4, and CAM plants. For example, a three carbon compound is found in C3 plants, whereas C4 plants use a four carbon compound. Another difference is that C3 plants use only mesophyll cells for the light-dependent reactions, and C4 plants use both mesophyll cells and bundle-sheath cells for the reaction. Finally, C3 plants open their stomata during the day, and CAM plants open theirs during the night.

C) Photorespiration occurs when rubisco attaches to O2 instead of CO2. This is ultimately bad for plants because no ATP or sugar is produced, but it still requires ATP in order to undergo this process. Although C4 and CAM photosynthesis is different than C3 photosynthesis, it is still possible for them to go through photorespiration, but it occurs at a slower rate compared to C3 photorespiration.

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A) Both C4 and CAM photosynthesis are considered to be coping mechanisms because they function differently from C3 plants due to C4 and CAM plants living in arid climates. This causes the plants to lose more water during the day than C3 plants. The C4 and CAM photosynthesis close their stomata during the day to prevent the loss of water. Stomata exchange gas such as, carbon dioxide, water, and oxygen when it is open. Instead, the C4 and CAM photosynthesis occur during the night when they are less likely to lose water.
B) Although C3, C4, and CAM plants all perform photosynthesis, they have some differences in how the reaction happens. One difference is, C3 plants carry out photosynthesis in a cell called the mesophyll cell. While C4 plants complete photosynthesis in a bundle sheath cell. Another difference is, C3 pants produces a three carbon molecule out of carbon dioxide and C4 plants produce a four carbon molecule. Lastly, C3 plants keep their stomata open during the day allowing them to collect carbon dioxide. Due to CAM plants' climate, they must keep their stomata closed so they do not dry out, as said in part A. Rather than opening it during the day, they open it at night.
C) Photorespiration is also known as the oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle, using the enzyme, Rubisco, to oxygenate RuBP. Knowing that C4 and CAM plants do release carbon dioxide they do photorespirate. Even though these plants function at night, they still do metabolize through photosynthesis and photorespiration.

Part A: Why are C4 and CAM photosynthesis considered to be coping mechanisms used by plants living in arid climates
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Your response is correct and well written, but it would be helpful to go into some more detail. In part A, you did not mention that C4 plants use a different photosynthetic pathway than C3 plants, because their photosynthesis occurs in the mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. Also, you could have mentioned that C4 plants create a 4 carbon molecule during photosynthesis. All of these things are what allow C4 to cope with the environment. In part C, it would have been helpful to describe in more detail why CAM and C4 plants go through photorespiration by discussing the different enzyme used in the process and the separation of carbon fixation and the Calvin Cycle to decrease the effects of photorespiration. In addition to that, you could have mentioned that the photorespiration rates of C4 and CAM plants are lower than those of C3 plants, although photorespiration still does occur to some degree in these plants.

This loss to the system is why C3 plants will outperform C4 plants if ..

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Part A: C4 and CAM photosynthesis are both considered to be coping mechanisms used by plants that live in various arid environments. In extremely dry environments, a substantial amount of water is necessary in order for plants to survive. In the chemical process of photosynthesis, plants acquire carbon dioxide (CO2) and lose both oxygen (O2) and a large amount of water (H2O). In order to maximize the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) intake and reduce the amount of water (H2O) lost, C4 and CAM plants exchange gases at night, when the air is cooler and has less humidity.

Part B: There are a few differences that occur within the photosynthesis of C4 and CAM compared to the processes that occur within the normal C3 photosynthesis. One key difference between C3 and C4 photosynthesis is as follows: C3 begins the Calvin Cycle by producing a three-carbon compound known as 3-phosphoglyceric acid, while C4 produces a four-carbon intermediate carbon. Another important difference between C4 and CAM photosynthesis and C3 photosynthesis is that both C4 and CAM are complex, multi-step processes, whereas C3 is a one-step process. A last significant difference between CAM and C3 photosynthesis is that CAM plants close their stomata during the day in order to reduce and/or prevent dehydration, while C3 plants do not. C3 plants undergo the normal form of photosynthesis, which occurs in the chloroplast organelle and usually occurs in the sunlight.

Part C: Yes, I do believe that both C4 and CAM plants photorespirate. Although they undergo
photorespiration, evolution has resulted in a mechanism that limits photorespiration's effects on C4 and CAM plants. Each one of the forms of photosynthesis have developed different ways of coping. For example, CAM plants minimize photorespiration by performing a select couple steps during the day and then opening their stomata at night in order to reduce the amount of water lost. Overall, CAM and C4 plants need to perform photorespiration, just as C3 plants do.

One variant is called C4 photosynthesis because the first stable product ..

03/12/2017 · C4 and CAM photosynthesis may thus be ..

A) C4 and CAM photosynthesis are commonly considered coping mechanisms for plants living in arid climates. All plants have tiny openings in their leaves called stomata that allow for gas exchange and the evaporation of water. If the stomata were left open during the day in a dry environment, water would evaporate from the plant very quickly, dehydrating the plant. To cope with this, C4 plants use a different biological pathway in photosynthesis to reduce the excess loss of water in hot and dry climates. C4 plants pump CO2 entering the leaf deep into the tissue of the leaf as a four carbon, not three carbon (C3 photosynthesis) molecule, to be used for later use. CAM photosynthesis is also a coping mechanism for plants in dry environments. The stomata of the plant close during the day to prevent excess water loss, and open at night when it is cooler to collect CO2. Both C4 and CAM photosynthesis aid plants in arid climates by preventing an increased loss of water that is needed to undergo photosynthesis.

B) Despite the fact that C4 and CAM plants still undergo photosynthesis, both mechanisms differ from C3 photosynthesis. C4 plants convert CO2 to a four carbon molecule, unlike C3 plants which convert it to a three carbon molecule. In C4 plants, this four carbon molecule is then transported to the bundle sheath cells. In C3 photosynthesis it remains in the mesophyll cells. CAM plants open their stomata during the night, while C3 plants open their stomata during the daytime. Another key difference between CAM and C3 plants is that CO2 is converted and stored as an acid in CAM plants. It is then broken down to release CO2 during the day while their stomata's are closed.

C) Photorespiration is a side pathway of the Calvin Cycle that is initiated when rubisco attaches to an oxygen molecule instead of a carbon dioxide molecule. This leads to the carbon fixation of an already carbon fixed molecule, which is essentially pointless and results in a decrease of sugar synthesis. Photorespiration is most likely to occur when a plant closes its stomata, since it inhibits the exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide therefore causing oxygen concentrations to rise. It also occurs at higher temperatures because the enzyme rubisco loses its ability to distinguish between the oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules. Since hot and dry conditions increase photorespiration rates, I do believe that C4 and CAM plants will photorespirate.