Organelles Involved in Protein Synthesis - Video & …
organelles which play an indispensable role in ..
Mitochondria are eukaryotic organelles of endosymbiotic origin, which conserve their own genome and gene expression machinery. They are highly dynamics organelles and form an elaborated network in the cell cytosol. Mitochondria fulfil various important roles in cellular metabolism. They are commonly known as ‘the powerhouse of the cell’ for their pivotal role in the conversion of nutrient-derived energy in the form of ATP molecules, through the mitochondria-housed pathways of citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Besides, much broader is the role that these organelles play in cellular metabolism and survival. Mitochondria fulfil important roles in the biosynthesis of essential molecules, such as lipids, amino acids, haem and iron–sulphur cluster, and are a major cellular site of reactive oxygen species production. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction is the cause of devastating human encephalomyopathies and it has been linked with neurodegeneration, cancer and ageing.
These organelles play a key role in various ..
N2 - Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles characterized by a protein-rich matrix surrounded by a single membrane. In filamentous fungi, peroxisomes are crucial for the primary metabolism of several unusual carbon sources used for growth (e. g. fatty acids), but increasing evidence is presented that emphasize the crucial role of these organelles in the formation of a variety of secondary metabolites. In filamentous fungi, peroxisomes also play a role in development and differentiation whereas specialized peroxisomes, the Woronin bodies, play a structural role in plugging septal pores. The biogenesis of peroxisomes in filamentous fungi involves the function of conserved PEX genes, as well as genes that are unique for these organisms. Peroxisomes are also subject to autophagic degradation, a process that involves ATG genes. The interplay between organelle biogenesis and degradation may serve a quality control function, thereby allowing a continuous rejuvenation of the organelle population in the cells.
LabBench Activity Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
Lysosomes are ubiquitous intracellular organelles that have an acidic internal pH, and play crucial roles in cellular clearance. Numerous functions depend on normal lysosomes, including the turnover of cellular constituents, cholesterol homeostasis, downregulation of surface receptors, inactivation of pathogenic organisms, repair of the plasma membrane and bone remodeling. Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are characterized by progressive accumulation of undigested macromolecules within the cell due to lysosomal dysfunction. As a consequence, many tissues and organ systems are affected, including brain, viscera, bone and cartilage. The progressive nature of phenotype development is one of the hallmarks of LSDs. In recent years biochemical and cell biology studies of LSDs have revealed an ample spectrum of abnormalities in a variety of cellular functions. These include defects in signaling pathways, calcium homeostasis, lipid biosynthesis and degradation and intracellular trafficking. Lysosomes also play a fundamental role in the autophagic pathway by fusing with autophagosomes and digesting their content. Considering the highly integrated function of lysosomes and autophagosomes it was reasonable to expect that lysosomal storage in LSDs would have an impact upon autophagy. The goal of this review is to provide readers with an overview of recent findings that have been obtained through analysis of the autophagic pathway in several types of LSDs, supporting the idea that LSDs could be seen primarily as "autophagy disorders."