Plant Energy Transformations-Photosynthesis

That had thick teeth that meant that it had abandoned the arboreal ape diet and brings up perhaps the single biggest question of the early human line: “When our ancestors became bipeds?” One piece of evidence for bipedalism is where the ; if it is underneath the skull, it suggests an upright posture and, hence, bipedalism. There is had a skull hole that meant bipedalism. Skull and vertebrae evidence, changes in the shoulders, arms, and hands of apes from onward, as well as the pelvis, legs, knees, ankles, and feet, are used whenever relevant ape fossils are found to determine what kind of posture they had, all the way from swinging from branches to walking upright. The great range of motion of the human arm has that arboreal heritage to thank.

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In today’s hunter-gatherer societies, the EROI for killing large animals dwarfs all other food sources. The EROI, of calories produced divided by those burned during the hours of labor invested, for large game (a deer, for example), is more than 100, and on average four times that of small game, fifteen times that of birds, about eight times that of roots and tubers, and 10-15 times that of seeds and nuts. The hunter-gatherer EROI for seeds, nuts, and birds is around ten-to-one. An average-sized adult African elephant carcass provides about 13 million calories, which would sustain a band of 12 people for a year if they could eat it all before it rotted and did not die of protein poisoning. The EROI for those easily killed proboscideans when humans invaded the Western Hemisphere could have been in the hundreds and even more than one thousand. Large animals have always been the mother lode of hunter-gatherer peoples, and the consensus among anthropologists is that no instincts urge a hunter to kill only what is needed, but a hunter will kill whatever he can. That finding partly derives from studying modern hunter-gatherers. There is no doubt that when early humans intruded into environments that never before encountered humans, where animals would have had no intrinsic fear of humans, people would have had an exceptionally easy time killing all large animals encountered. Animals without experience around humans, such as Antarctic penguins, are easily approached and killed. As happened innumerable times in the historical era, intruding humans killed all the naïve animals that they could. The only animals that survived developed a healthy fear of humans and avoided them, but how many could develop that fear before they were all killed? From the very beginning of the , . More than 500 million years later, a new kind of animal appeared that turned that advantage into a fatal disadvantage, as it found a way to mine that energy stored in large animals, and it quickly plundered it to exhaustion whenever it could.

Waste-to-Energy Needed in Pakistan

After forty-plus years of studying photosynthesis, Klaus Schulten has pieced together the intervening processes that occur between the absorption of sunlight and the generation of ATP. He feels he has finally garnered an understanding to suit himself, about the full mechanism of the photosynthetic membrane. With solution of the entire structure of the chromatophore at hand, Schulten was at a point in his career where he could illustrate the function of this autonomous machine, which harbors many processes that interlock together to make photosynthesis work. He had also demystified the role of each type of protein that comprises the chromatophore. At this juncture in time (2014), he harkened back to his long-cherished goal of explaining a whole cell, and realized he could by now reach this goal, by at least explicating a living system at the organelle level. He could show the function of chromatophore and how its proteins worked together like a Swiss watch to convert sunlight into ATP. But what he wanted to do scientifically he could only do with a movie.

What energy source is needed in the reaction? 5. Consider a plant as the photosynthetic organism. a. In what part of the plant does photosynthesis occur? b.
Other sections include matter, elements, the periodic table, reactions, and biochemistry.

Photosynthetic efficiency - Wikipedia

The first five books of the Bible, called the , are considered by today’s scholars to have been a political tract written centuries after the alleged events occurred. It was like the taught to today’s schoolchildren as a way to cultivate blind obedience to the state. Early Israel and Judah were tiny kingdoms in the hills, sandwiched between Assyria and Egypt, which were warring regional powers. Israel was destroyed about 722 BCE after the Israeli king defied the Assyrian king, and ten of Israel’s tribes were forcibly relocated by Assyria and became lost to history. The Assyrians forcibly relocated more than four million people. Those “lost tribes” became the focus of for millennia. Writing the Pentateuch was an understandable effort to help Israelites survive, as a kind of nationalistic parable. The New Testament and Koran were also written long after the alleged events, accompanied by huge political battles over what the official story would be. Whatever divine inspiration Jesus may have had access to, ("" (AKA "") is perhaps the most enlightened message ever given to humanity), or other figures in Judeo-Christian or Islamic tales, what certain is that priesthoods and rulers shamelessly distorted them to serve their agendas of amassing and maintaining wealth and power, in a pattern that and lasts to this day.

Respiration is the process by which organisms burn food to produce energy

photosynthesis can occur with light up ..

In eukaryotic cells these reactions occur in the ..

by chlorophyll and that drive photosynthesis