Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

The rate of protein synthesis is about 6 peptide bonds per minute, thus it takes about 1 to 2 minutes to synthesize an average sized protein. Because mRNA is often several thousand nucleotides in length, the same mRNA molecules can be simultaneously bound by many ribosomes. An mRNA that is bound by multiple ribosomes is called a polysome. Polysomes provide a mechanism for many copies of a protein to be translated from a single mRNA. Polysomes in the cytosol synthesize most of the proteins and enzymes required by the body for intracellular processes such as metabolism.

Drag-and-Drop Protein Synthesis: Translation - zeroBio

Streptomycin: prevents tRNA from binding, thus blocking the initiation of translation.

Translation / Protein Synthesis - Biology | Socratic

And note that both tRNA and mRNA have Uracil instead of Thymine.
Since the tRNA's are essentially "reading" the mRNA code (by binding to it) and bringing in the proper amino acids to build the protein, this process is called .

Translation Of Protein Synthesis-Translation of mRNA …

The Talking Glossary of Genetics Terms website and iPhone app provide an easily transportable and accessible reference for your students. Many times the unfamiliar vocabulary is the major stumbling block to student comprehension. This app/site gives them a handy reference to common terms used in describing the components involved on transcription and translation.

When translation is finished, this single pass membrane protein has its N-terminus on the lumen side and its C-terminus on the cytosolic side.

Protein synthesis by pure translation systems - …

Surprisingly, we found that within a gene, exon sequences are often folded together (along with the start of the gene where the transcription machinery assembles), while the intervening introns are looped out. This folding may help decide which exons are strung together into the final sequence that is translated to protein.

Drag-and-Drop Protein Synthesis: Translation

For a gene to be expressed, i.e., translated into , that portion of the DNA has to be uncoiled and freed of the protective proteins. An enzyme, called , "reads" the DNA (the sequence of bases on one of the two strands of the DNA molecule) and builds a single-stranded chain of the RNA molecule as a complementary, mirror-image sequence. Again, where there is a G in DNA, there will be C in the RNA and vice versa. Instead of thymine, RNA has (U). Wherever in the DNA strand there is an A, there will be a U in the RNA, and wherever there is a T on the DNA molecule, there will be an A in the RNA.

Protein Synthesis (Translation) | BIOL 141

Human genes are made of small parts, called , which are separated by long non-coding DNA sequences, called . When a gene is transcribed, the intervening introns are cut or “spliced” out, and the exons are strung back together to form the sequence that is then translated into protein.

Translation of the DNA/RNA code into a sequence of amino-acids is just the beginning of the process of protein synthesis.

Translation - Protein Synthesis

When the is assembled around a molecule of mRNA, the translation begins with the reading of the first triplet. Small tRNA molecules bring in the individual amino-acids and attach them to the mRNA, as well as to each other, forming a chain of amino-acids. When a stop signal is reached, the entire complex disassociates. The ribosome, the mRNA, the tRNAs and the enzymes are then either degraded or re-used for another translational event.

A protein-RNA complex called signal recognition particle () recognizes and binds to the signal sequence and to the ribosome, halting translation.

What happens during protein synthesis

By including or removing different exons, the same gene can be spliced together in different combinations that are then translated into different protein products.

Includes all the major steps of Protein Synthesis and a quiz at the end

The second step is translation in which the RNA molecule ..

Cell uses the genes to synthesize proteins. This is a two-step process. The first step is transcription in which the sequence of one gene is replicated in an RNA molecule. The second step is translation in which the RNA molecule serves as a code for the formation of an amino-acid chain (a polypeptide).