How are plant pigments involved in photosynthesis? | …
How are plant pigments involved in photosynthesis?
For the first concept presented above, for conventional renewable energy sources, they are replenished by sunlight or radiation from Earth’s interior; one is fusion, and the other is fission. For so-called non-renewable energy sources, such as hydrocarbons and fissile materials, they are either renewed on timescales so vast that they are effectively non-renewable for humans (such as ), or are “renewed” by the (fissile materials), so could only be renewed with new planetary formation. In mainstream thought, the currently non-renewable energy resources are primarily hydrocarbons (petroleum, coal, and natural gas) and uranium. Much of the debate centers around the definition of oil. What has been called oil for the past 150 years is today called . It is the oil formed by the , and can be mined by drilling wells and extracting it with the conventional methods that have been used since the beginning, and new techniques are periodically invented to increase the rate and total extraction. For conventional oil, humanity has unearthed about 1.1 trillion barrels since 1859, and about as of 2014. Production of conventional oil peaked in 2006 at 25 billion barrels per year and has declined since then. At current production rates, conventional oil will be completely depleted in less than 50 years. About another five billion barrels per year are called unconventional oil, which is called heavy oil, extra heavy oil, and oil sands. Those unconventional oils comprise trillions more barrels, and total and arguably more. For fissile materials, primarily uranium, the peak may have already been reached by 2014, or it . For , in that the peak may have already been reached, or it is only a few decades into the future at most. For coal, may also be only a few decades into the future. Peak extraction usually occurs when about half of the recoverable energy resource has been mined. In summary, the energy resources that have powered the Industrial Revolution are all on their way to largely vanishing in this century. The only resources with seeming viability past this century are coal and unconventional oil, which brings us to the second concept: .
pigment and photosynthesis Essay - 1027 Words | Major Tests
Meanwhile, is crashing. As I have performed my studies since 1990, including numerous scientific topics, one issue became clear: biologists and climate scientists are in a panic regarding what is happening. Biologists know that they are living through the , which is caused by humans and is happening before their eyes. Climate scientists are watching humans alter the atmosphere to the extent that may be caused within a geologic timescale’s blink of an eye. It took more than two billion years for , and the , which took many millions of years to transpire. But humanity may end up altering the atmosphere so much in a mere few hundred years to actually turn Earth from an into a Greenhouse Earth, create and events, or myriad other potential outcomes. Industrial humanity is engaging in a chemistry and physics experiment with our home planet, and hardly anybody seems to notice or care. That frightens climate scientists, and biologists know that those potential geophysical events can make the current extinction event even more pronounced, and humans may achieve a mass extinction that exceeds even the , and do it quicker than every previous extinction event other than that . For one of many ominous trends, the oceans are being acidified by the increasingly acidic rain, which is . Peter Ward’s is not so farfetched, as he churns out grim books with his emeritus years not far off, but humans are the current agents of destruction, not Mother Earth and her other species. On , humanity is peering into the abyss.