Second Language Acquisition - Critical Period Hypothesis

Vocabulary Learning Has No Critical Period
Of vocabulary acquisition in one’s first language, Singleton writes, “there is no point at which vocabulary acquisition can be predicted to cease.” There is also, Singleton suggests, no critical period for learning vocabulary in a second language.

Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis

At what age, approximately, is the end of the critical period for native language acquisition

Critical Period For Language Acquisition - Business Insider

Early Foreign Language Instruction is “Not a Magical Tool”
In The Age Factor in Second Language Acquisition, David Singleton concedes that in second-language instruction, “younger = better in the long run.” But this is a general rule with plenty of exceptions. The exceptions include the 5 percent of adult bilinguals who master a second language even though they begin learning it when they are well into adulthood, long after any critical period has presumably come to a close.

Free language acquisition Essays and Papers - 123HelpMe

As John T. Bruer, author of The Myth of the First Three Years, states: “One of the dangers of the…emphasis on critical periods, is that it prompts us to pay too much attention to when learning occurs and too little attention to how learning might best occur.” Marshall agrees, pointing out that learning a foreign language in elementary school—what most researchers generally agree is the ideal time—is not a “magical tool for creating perfect second-language speakers.” Timing, in other words, is not everything.

Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH henceforth) affects the educational policy-making of foreign language teaching.

Case Study of Genie - Critical Period Hypothesis

The critical-period hypothesis for second-language acquisition was tested on data from the 1990 U.S. Census using responses from 2.3 million immigrants with Spanish or Chinese language backgrounds. The analyses tested a key prediction of the hypothesis, namely, that the line regressing second-language attainment on age of immigration would be markedly different on either side of the criticalage point. Predictions tested were that there would be a difference in slope, a difference in the mean while controlling for slope, or both. The results showed large linear effects for level of education and for age of immigration, but a negligible amount of additional variance was accounted for when the parameters for difference in slope and difference in means were estimated. Thus, the pattern of decline in second-language acquisition failed to produce the necessary discontinuity that is an essential hallmark of a critical period.

The Critical Period Hypothesis for Second Language Acquisition: Tailoring the Coat of Many Colors

Free hypothesis Essays and Papers - 123HelpMe

After 11 years of isolation and abuse Genie was discovered possessing no known language, having already passed what was theorized to be the critical period.

The critical-period hypothesis for second-language acquisition was tested on data from the 1990 U.S

Ñandutí >>Benefits of Early Learning

The Grammar-Learning Window Never Completely Closes
Although acquiring the grammar of one’s first language does seem to be subject to a critical period which ends around puberty, the issue of whether or not there is also a critical period for second-language grammar acquisition is more complex. In The Myth of the First Three Years, Bruer does not state that there is a critical period for second-language grammar learning; instead, he claims that there “may be some maturational constraints on second-language grammar learning.”

The inner game of tennis and language acquisition (From: Krashen, S. 1978. ESL as post-critical period learning. MEXTESOL Journal 2: 13-24. 1978.)

Language Acquisition - Books and Articles by Stephen …

Foreign-Language Learning and Critical Periods
The question of whether or not there is a critical period for learning a foreign language is not easily answered. But there is certainly no specific age at which the window of opportunity closes completely. As with the visual system, the language system consists of several features, and is not, as Singleton writes, a “monolith.” Certain features of the language system may be more related to distinct critical periods than others. According to Ellen Bialystok and Kenji Hakuta, authors of In Other Words, “The controversy over the optimal age for learning a second language really hinges on the acquisition of a subset of possible linguistic features and functions.”