D) protobionts that use DNA to program protein synthesis

Second, many of them areknown to be important intermediates in the production of organicmatter in abiotic synthesis experiments (e.g., hydrogen cyanide,formaldehyde, and cyanoacetylene).

II. Synthesis of organic monomers

Abiotic (nonliving) synthesis and accumulation of small organic monomers - amino acids, nucleotides

III. Synthesis of organic polymers

Thus atmospheric circulation imposes severe constraints on the timeavailable for simple atmospheric gases to be converted to complexorganic macromolecules akin to proteins and nucleic acids, thecritical biochemicals of life on Earth For life to arise on Jupiter,the rate of chemical evolution must be extraordinarily fast, that is,fast compared to the rate of circulation of matter to hot regionsdeep in the atmosphere.

38) Which kingdoms include photosynthetic organisms?

According to the "dirty ice" model, cometnuclei consist of simple and complex organic molecules andmeteorite-like dust and rock embedded in a matrix of frozen water andpossibly solid CO

abiotic synthesis of organic monomers b

The dust in interstellar clouds is not well characterized; there isevidence to suggest the presence of ice, silicates, graphite,macromolecular organic compounds, and mixtures of these ingredients.

1- Abiotic synthesis of organic monomers

Microorganisms utilize Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate) (PHBV) as energy sources, thus allowing these polymers to be biodegraded in microbial active environments. Microbes colonize the polymer surface and secrete enzymes that degrade PHB into HB (hydroxybutyrate) and PHBV into HB and HV (hydroxyvalerate) segments. These fragments are used as a carbon source by the cells, for the purpose of growth.

Abiotic synthesis of organic monomers 2

These and other constraints have led to a model forthe synthesis of interstellar molecules in dense clouds in whichreactions are initiated by collisions of ubiquitous, high-energy,cosmic-ray particles with H

Monomers -> polymers: abiotic synthesis of cell ..

Bioplastics are a special type of biomaterial. They are polyesters produced by different microorganisms, and cultured under different nutrient and environmental conditions []. These polymers, usually lipid in nature, are accumulated as storage materials and allowing microbial survival under stress conditions. The number and size of the granules, the monomer composition, macromolecular structure and physicochemical properties vary widely, depending on the producer organism. As depicted in , they can be observed intracellularly as light refracting granules or as electron lucent bodies, which, in overproducing mutants, cause a striking alteration of the bacterial shape [].

Evolution of Organic Molecules Overview of Lecture ..

3. Changes in the chemical properties of the polymer in synthetic media, including the formation or disappearance of functional groups as determined by FTIR, can be measured. The molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of the degraded products or intermediates are observed by techniques such as TLC, GCMS and NMR [].

Extraterrestrial Organic Synthesis

By using small organic molecules to build a network of organic reactions with autocatalytic, bistable and oscillatory behaviour, we identify principles that explain the ways in which dynamic networks relevant to life could have developed.

Early Earth Abiotic Synthesis of Organic Molecules - Duration: ..

Furthermore, many ofthe syntheses of the complex biomolecules involve either singlereactants or very simple mixtures of reactants and are carried outunder laboratory conditions whose geological relevance to andplausibility in the primitive [