What 2 electron carriers are used in the citric acid cycle
BI 2: Electron Transport Chain & Chemiosmosis by …
''Natural photosynthesis is a process by which light from the sun is converted to chemical energy," began Mark Wrighton in his presentation to the Frontiers symposium. Wrighton directs a laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Chemistry Department, where active research into the development of workable laboratory synthesis of the process is under way. As chemists have known for many decades, the chemical energy he referred to comes from the breakdown of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O), driven by photons of light, and leads to production of carbohydrates that nourish plants and of oxygen (O2), which is vital to aerobic organisms. What is not known in complete detail is how this remarkable energy-conversion system works on the molecular level. However, recent advances in spectroscopy, crystallography, and molecular genetics have clarified much of the picture, and scientists like Wrighton are actively trying to transform what is known about the process into functional, efficient, synthetic systems that will tap the endless supply of energy coming from the sun. "Photosynthesis works," said Wrighton, "and on a large scale." This vast natural phenomenon occurring throughout the biosphere and producing an enormous amount of one kind of fuel—food for plants and animals—Wrighton described as "an existence proof that a solar conversion system can produce [a different, though] useful fuel on a scale capable of meeting the needs'' of human civilization. Photovoltaic (PV) cells already in use around the world provide a functional (if more costly per kilowatt-hour)
Transcript of BI 2: Electron Transport Chain & Chemiosmosis
Wrighton's presentation, "Photosynthesis—Real and Artificial," was a closely reasoned, step-by-step discussion of the crucial stages in the chemical and molecular sequence of photosynthesis. His colleagues in the session were chosen for their expertise in one or another of these fundamental specialized areas of photosynthesis research. By the end of the session, they had not only provided a lucid explanation of the process, but had also described firsthand some of the intriguing experimental data produced. Douglas Rees of the California Institute of Technology (on the molecular details of biological photosynthesis), George McLendon of the University of Rochester (on electron transfer), Thomas Mallouk of the University of Texas (on the arrangement of materials to facilitate multielectron transfer chemistry), and Nathan Lewis of the California Institute of Technology (on synthetic systems using liquid junctions) all supplemented Wrighton's overview with reports about findings in their own area of photosynthesis research.