Optics andthermodynamics are examples of partial theories in physics.

The argument and thought-experiment now generally known as the ChineseRoom Argument was first published in a paper in 1980 by Americanphilosopher John Searle (1932- ). It has become one of the best-knownarguments in recent philosophy. Searle imagines himself alone in aroom following a computer program for responding to Chinese charactersslipped under the door. Searle understands nothing of Chinese, andyet, by following the program for manipulating symbols and numeralsjust as a computer does, he produces appropriate strings of Chinesecharacters that fool those outside into thinking there is a Chinesespeaker in the room. The narrow conclusion of the argument is thatprogramming a digital computer may make it appear to understandlanguage but does not produce real understanding. Hence the “TuringTest” is inadequate. Searle argues that the thought experimentunderscores the fact that computers merely use syntactic rules tomanipulate symbol strings, but have no understanding of meaning orsemantics. The broader conclusion of the argument is that the theorythat human minds are computer-like computational or informationprocessing systems is refuted. Instead minds must result frombiological processes; computers can at best simulate these biologicalprocesses. Thus the argument has large implications for semantics,philosophy of language and mind, theories of consciousness, computerscience and cognitive science generally. As a result, there have beenmany critical replies to the argument.

None of these hypotheses is particularly well tested ortenable.

Anexample is furnished by a current (rather monstrous) definitionof 'social system'.

An example is found in the definition of group'cohesiveness'.

Theoretical knowledge is considered here not as a set of infallible and absolute truths, but rather as a system of hypotheses which present a challenge to other investigators who through gradually modifying them make them somewhat more adequate hypotheses.

Thus, nominal definitions are devoidof hypotheses.

Accordingly, the process of building up a science is one where the various hypotheses and their systems, while offering an approximate picture of regularities of human behavior, inspire further investigations which lead to the formulation of more and more adequate systems of hypotheses.

Cognition as symbol manipulation The PSS hypothesis …

The main reason for the use ofquantitative variables, treated statistically, is that we obtainthrough them a quantitative expression of the plausibility of thenull-hypothesis.

are irrelevant to the validity or truth ..

We may therefore take the following to be the criterion for the meaningfulness of statis-[p.140]tical tests: every statistical hypothesis should be a consequence of a formal theory of nature.

Pyshical Symbol Systems Hypothesis ..

Not so that this significance level isthe probability of making errors of Type I, but by consistentlyapplying a given significance level, such as the .05 level, weknow [p.141] that in the long run we have rejectedonly 5 per cent of the true null-hypotheses.

A hypothesis is proposed for the statistical relationship ..

In looking back at the complexities of evaluatinginternal and external validity of the indicators, their precisionand objectivity, the representativeness of the sample, the scopeof the data, the control of alternative hypotheses, the fitbetween predictions and observations, etc., one conclusion standsout: No presently known mechanical or mathematical device canhelp the sociologist in his decision to accept or reject aproposition; only good training and much experience can guidehim.

The Bischof-Köhler hypothesis is itself controversial ..

In assessing from this angle a scientist's [p.154] contribution to the body of theoretical knowledge the decisive factor is not so much whether his hypotheses have been maintained entirely unchanged, but the role his hypotheses have played in the development of theoretical knowledge.

MMSE were calculated, based on the hypothesis of an ..

Damasio, A. R. (2000). A Neural Basis for Sociopathy. (2), 128-129. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.57.2.128 A commentary on: Raine, A., Lencz, T., Bihrle, S., LaCasse, L., & Colletti, P. (2000). An example of a recent article using the term sociopathy by one of the leading neurophysiological researchers.