The sequence determines the properties of the protein.

Cell uses the genes to synthesize proteins. This is a two-step process. The first step is transcription in which the sequence of one gene is replicated in an RNA molecule. The second step is translation in which the RNA molecule serves as a code for the formation of an amino-acid chain (a polypeptide).

Introns interrupt exons, the protein coding parts of genes.

The DNA code is a . Each triplet, a group of three bases, codes for a specific amino acid:

The Genetic Code & Protein Synthesis Flashcards | Quizlet

These rearrangement of physical location of DNA strands affects number, location, and sequence of genes coding for proteins and RNA and thus are vital for generating mutations important for evolutionary fitness of an organism.

[triplet code: the genetic code ..

The human genome has been found to contain only 5% coding sequences (genes that make proteins), while half of all non-coding portions are made of transposable elements reminiscent of viral DNA.

The main stages of protein synthesis are transcription and translation.

Part Three: Gene Expression and Protein Synthesis

Har Gobind Khorana, at the University of Wisconsin, adapted Nirenberg's experimental system, and confirmed and extended his work. Nirenberg and Khorana were awarded the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, shared with Robert W. Holley, "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis."

Gene Expression and Protein Synthesis

This code determines the type of amino acids and the order in which they are joined together to make a specific protein. The sequence of amino acids in a protein determines its structure and function.

Gene Expression - Proteins & Protein Synthesis

shows the genetic code of the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), i.e. it shows all 64 possible combinations of codons composed of three nucleotide bases (tri-nucleotide units) that specify amino acids during protein assembling.

Each codon of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) codes for or specifies a single amino acid and each nucleotide unit consists of a phosphate, deoxyribose sugar and one of the 4 nitrogenous nucleotide bases, adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). The bases are paired and joined together by hydrogen bonds in the double helix of the DNA. mRNA corresponds to DNA (i.e. the sequence of nucleotides is the same in both chains) except that in RNA, thymine (T) is replaced by uracil (U), and the deoxyribose is substituted by ribose.

The process of translation of genetic information into the assembling of a protein requires first mRNA, which is read 5' to 3' (exactly as DNA), and then transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA), which is read 3' to 5'. tRNA is the taxi that translates the information on the ribosome into an amino acid chain or polypeptide.

For mRNA there are 43 = 64 different nucleotide combinations possible with a triplet codon of three nucleotides. All 64 possible combinations are shown in . However, not all 64 codons of the genetic code specify a single amino acid during translation. The reason is that in humans only 20 amino acids (except selenocysteine) are involved in translation. Therefore, one amino acid can be encoded by more than one mRNA codon-triplet. Arginine and leucine are encoded by 6 triplets, isoleucine by 3, methionine and tryptophan by 1, and all other amino acids by 4 or 2 codons. The redundant codons are typically different at the 3rd base. shows the inverse codon assignment, i.e. which codon specifies which of the 20 standard amino acids involved in translation.

Protein Synthesis | Translation (Biology) | Genetic Code

RNA, the close kin and working partner to DNA, provided the key to the code. While DNA resides almost entirely in the cell nucleus, protein synthesis takes place in the cytoplasm, where RNA is found. On molecular workbenches known as ribosomes, sequences of RNA, transcribed from stretches of DNA, serve as instructions for manufacturing proteins. Protein synthesis represents the fundamental work of the genes.

DNA and Protein Synthesis | S-cool, the revision website

Genes are sections of the DNA. Each gene has the code for creating a specific protein. The sequence of bases in the gene controls which amino acids are created and joined to make a specific new protein (or enzyme) molecule.

Protein Synthesis and the Genetic Code - GitHub Pages

Nirenberg went on to decipher other triplets in the genetic code—a total of thirty-five by 1963, and over sixty by 1966. As suspected, each "codon" was found to consist of three bases in a specific order. With four bases, there were 64 possible triplets. The code was thus redundant: more than one codon could stand for a specific amino acid. Both AAG and AAA, for example, code for the amino acid lysine. Three of the codons, it was eventually discovered, signal the end of any particular amino acid chain.