Translation: Making Protein Synthesis Possible - …
Transcription and Translation - YouTube
The above is a grossly oversimplified sketch of the translation process as it applies in a . See Karp for a more detailed treatment. The essentials that this illustration seeks to convey are that the ribosome uses the detailed sequence of codons on the and matches those codons to molecules which carry the corresponding amino acids. The translation process builds a polypeptide with the precise sequence of amino acids specified by the mRNA pattern. In , the translation process has many similarities but is of even greater complexity.
Protein biosynthesis - Wikipedia
The process of translation can be divided into the stages of initiation, elongation, and termination. Initiation involves at least three other proteins called initiation factors to help bind the mRNA to the smaller subunit of the two-unit ribosome. It is bound to the correct location using the initiation codon AUG on the mRNA. The next phase is elongation, or adding other amino acids to the building polypeptide chain. According to Karp, a step of elongation can be accomplished in about 1/20 second, so a small protein of 400 units could be assembled in about 20 seconds! It is suggested that most of this time is used sampling the amino-acid-carrying tRNAs in the cytosol to find the ones for which there is a codon-anticodon match for the next codon along the mRNA pattern.