The rules are described in more detail, with examples, in .

White, J., M. L. Hackert, M. Buehner, M. J. Adams, G. C. Ford, P. J. J. Lentz, I. E. Smiley, S. J. Steindel & M. G. Rossman (1976). A Comparison of the Structures of Apo Dogfish M4 Lactate Dehydrogenase and Its Ternary Complexes. 102, 759-79.

The following are rough 'n ready guidelines to thesis writing.

An important component of your writing will be the effective use of reference material.

You will therefore be expected to use the format set out below.

[42] BESTER, C.J.: The Effect of Pavement Type and Condition on the Fuel Consumption of Vehicles: Paper presented at the January Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, 1984

Briefly summarize how you plan to solve the problem.

It is a myth that academic writing requires a ‘sophisticated’ style with long sentences, complex expressions, and technical jargon. Avoid overlong sentences and cut out redundant words and phrases.
This is illustrated in the following example.

A thesis or dissertation presents the research that the student performed for that degree.

Enclose the date in parentheses.

It should be a distillation of the thesis: a concise description of the problem(s) addressed, your method of solving it/them, your results and conclusions.

Use a date sufficiently specific for the item.

Many universities require something like: "I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning, except where due acknowledgment has been made in the text.

Browse through the back pages of different journals to get an idea.

Many universities require something like: "I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning, except where due acknowledgment has been made in the text.

Oral research reports are also useful, but this course does not cover them.

Separate the entries with a blank line.

Müller, C. W. & G. E. Schulz (1988). Structure of the complex of adenylate kinase from Escherichia coli and the inhibitor P1, P5-di(adenosine-5'-) pentaphosphate. 202, 909-912.

Here are the main features that distinguish academic writing from some other types of writing.

If there are two authors, separate their names with "and".

In example 6, there are more than two authors. For space reasons, only the first author, Boyle, is named, the others are referred to with ‘et al’. Their names are listed in the Reference List.

The sections below discuss each of these elements in turn.

Sharp, K. A., A. Nicholls, R. F. Fine & B. Honig (1991). Reconciling the Magnitude of the Microscopic and Macroscopic Hydrophobic Effects. 252, 106-109.