The diverse medicinal use of the plant by local people has led several research teams to carry out experimental investigations to find out the bioactive constituents (crude or pure) that are responsible for various medicinal uses of the plant with an ultimate goal of justifying the traditional use of the plant species or discovering drugs against different diseases. Some research teams carried out biological activity tests using crude extracts obtained from different parts of the plant whereas very few of them used pure compounds isolated from different parts of the plant. For instance, hypoglycemic effect of leaf extract of Moringa stenopetala was assessed in non-diabetic rabbits using analysis. The plant extract was found to lower and cholesterol in mice models (; ; ; ). The crude water and n-hexane extracts of its seeds have been reported to show antibacterial activities (; ; ). Another experiment carried on guinea-pig ileum and mouse duodenum and uterus strips using ethanol extract of leaves also revealed antispasmodic property with some on uterus strips of guinea-pigs and mice. These results were claimed to be consistent with the traditional use of the leaves of Moringa stenopetala for relieving stomach pain and to expel retained placenta by women during giving birth (). Other experimental results also indicated antitrypanosomal, antileishmanial, anti-fertility and the antimicrobial properties of crude extracts from the seed, leaves and roots of Moringa stenopetala (; ; ). Reports also revealed low toxicity of leaves, root and seed extracts as demonstrated by cytotoxicity tests on HEPG2 cells ().


Within the review, methods to optimise extraction of the compounds were also noted.

Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds …

The draft CICAD on environmental aspects of manganese and its compounds was sent for review to IPCS national Contact Points and Participating Institutions, as well as to identified experts. Comments were received from:

Isolation of Compounds from Acetone Extract of Root …

Scientists from ATSDR reviewed the peer reviewers' comments and determined which comments were to be included in the profile. A listing of the peer reviewers' comments not incorporated in the profile, with a brief explanation of the rationale for their exclusion, exists as part of the administrative record for this compound. A list of databases reviewed and a list of unpublished documents cited are also included in the administrative record. The citation of the peer review panel should not be understood to imply its approval of the profile's final content.

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González A, Lynch J (1999) Tolerance of tropical common bean genotypes to manganese toxicity: performance under different growing conditions. , 22(3):511–525.

how to get from biological material to pure compounds ..

Roberts(1975) showed that DDT at 50 µg/litre reduced the amplitude ofventricular contractions in the isolated heart of the bivalve Mya arenaria within 4 minutes.

Molecules | Topical Collection : Bioactive Compounds

Manganese can induce iron deficiency in some algae, notably blue-green algae, and this can lead to inhibition of chlorophyll synthesis (Csatorday et al., 1984). The mechanism is thought to be competition for an active site where iron is necessary for functional integrity. Csatorday et al. (1984) found that in the alga , manganese blocks access of iron ions to some functional site involved in the magnesium branch of the tetrapyrrole synthesis pathway in the synthesis of the pigment phycobiliprotein. The site of action was the step after the insertion of magnesium into the protoporphyrin ring. Rousch & Sommerfeld (1999) showed that the chlorophyll content in two filamentous green algae (and ) decreased at 20 mg manganese/litre over 15 days. The decreased chlorophyll content may have been due to an effect on chlorophyll synthesis or increased activity of the enzyme chlorophyllase, which breaks down chlorophyll. Abdel-Basset et al. (1995) also found that the activity of the enzyme chlorophyllase (isolated from two green algae and ) was increased in the presence of 0.1 mg manganese/litre. Filamentous green algal species (and ) common in streams receiving acid mine drainage showed significant growth reductions at 20 mg manganese/litre (as manganese sulfate) in 15-day tests; algae were unaffected by pH levels typical of contaminated streams (Rousch & Sommerfeld, 1999). Wang (1986) reported a 4-day EC50, based on growth, of 31 mg manganese/litre for the common duckweed (). No significant effect on the growth of the aquatic plant was observed at 10 mg manganese/litre (as manganese chloride) in 5-day tests; however, a significant increase in enzymatic activity was found at 1 mg manganese/litre (Byl et al., 1994).


Rout GR, Samantaray S, Das P (2001) Studies on differential manganese tolerance of mung bean and rice genotypes in hydroponic culture. , 21(8):725–733.

Department of Chemistry | UMass Amherst

Nealson KH, Myers CR, Wimpee BB (1991) Isolation and identification of manganese-reducing bacteria and estimates of microbial Mn(IV)-reducing potential in the Black Sea. , 38:S907–S920.

Production of Bioactive Compounds by Actinomycetes …

MAK (1994) Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area (MAK). Weinheim, VCH.