extended essay human rights extended essay human rights

A good defense of a duty of well-off countries to assist poor ones inrealizing human rights would not automatically impose that duty on thecitizens of the well-off countries (except, of course, through thetaxes they pay). But perhaps citizens should share somehow in dutiesof international aid. One approach to explaining how and why citizensshare in these duties involves viewing the citizens of a democraticcountry as having ultimate responsibility for the human rights dutiesof their government. If their government has a duty to respect orimplement the right to a fair trial, or a duty to aid poor countries,its citizens share in that duty. They are required as voters,political agents, and taxpayers to try to promote and support theirgovernment's compliance with its human rights duties. This principleof shared duty is particularly attractive in democratic societieswhere the citizens are the ultimate source of politicalauthority. This view makes individuals back-up addressees for theduties of their governments.

Human rights are rights as regarded belonging to all people.

Within many nations political debates rage over the denial or abuse ofhuman rights.

Human rights are agreed to exist because a majority says they do.

Still, human rights are morewidely accepted than they have ever been. They have become part of thecurrency of international relations, and most countries participate inthe human rights system. Treaty arrangements help encourage andpressure countries to deal with their human rights problems. The humanrights project continues and has not failed.

And the human species can only survive with procreation.

Success in promoting human rights requires hard-to-achieve success inother areas including building more capable, responsive, efficient,and non-corrupt governments, dealing with failed states, increasingeconomic productivity (to pay for the protections and services thathuman rights require), improving the power and status of women,improving education, and managing international tensions andconflicts. Realizing human rights worldwide is a project forcenturies, not decades. This is not to say, however, that progresscannot proceed at a faster pace than it currently does.

Unfortunately, human rights are far more complicatedphenomena than that.

These are each examples of human rights violations.

At the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna, countriesincluding Singapore, Malaysia, China, and Iran advocated accommodationswithin human rights practice for cultural and economicdifferences. Western representatives tended to view the positionof these countries as excuses for repression andauthoritarianism. The Conference responded by approving the . It included in Article 5 the assertion that countries should not pickand choose among human rights: “All human rights are universal,indivisible and interdependent and interrelated. The internationalcommunity must treat human rights globally in a fair and equal manner,on the same footing, and with the same emphasis. While thesignificance of national and regional particularities and varioushistorical, cultural and religious backgrounds must be borne in mind,it is the duty of States, regardless of their political, economic andcultural systems, to promote and protect all human rights andfundamental freedoms.”

LLM Program in International Human Rights

Perhaps the debate about relativism and human rights has becomeobsolete. In recent decades widespread acceptance of human rights hasoccurred in most parts of the world. Three quarters of theworld’s countries have ratified the major human rights treaties,and many countries in Africa, the Americas, and Europe participate inregional human rights regimes that have international courts (see below). Further, all ofthe world's countries now use similar political institutions (law,courts, legislatures, executives, militaries, bureaucracies, police,prisons, taxation, and public schools) and these institutions carrywith them characteristic problems and abuses (Donnelly 2003: 46, 92;Nickel 2007, 173–4). Finally, globalization has diminished thedifferences among peoples. Today’s world is not the one thatearly anthropologists and missionaries found. National and culturalboundaries are breached not just by international trade but also bymillions of travelers and migrants, electronic communications,international law covering many areas, and the efforts ofinternational governmental and non-governmentalorganizations. International influences and organizations areeverywhere and countries borrow freely and regularly from eachother’s inventions and practices.

csr asia business and human rights yamwl Classification Essay Examples Cheap Essay Papers Sample

11. DouglasHusak, "The Motivation for Human Rights", (1985) 11

One way to avoid rights inflation is to follow Cranston in insistingthat human rights only deal with extremely important goods,protections, and freedoms. A supplementary approach is to imposeseveral justificatory tests for specific human rights. For example, itcould be required that a proposed human right not only deal with somevery important good but also respond to a common and serious threat tothat good, impose burdens on the addressees that are justifiable andno larger than necessary, and be feasible in most of the world'scountries (see Nickel 2007). This approach restrains rights inflationwith several tests, not just one master test.

What was naturally right could be ascertained by humansby `right reason' - thinking properly.

Allan Gewirth,"Why There Are Human Rights", (1985) 11

Advocates of the other approaches tohuman rights have dismissed needs to subsistence as too narrow a foundation,but this criticism may not account for the ramifications that flow fromthe range of human needs.

In effect, God decided what limits should be placed on the human politicalactivity.

There are many terrible human rights violations happening in Chad.

It may be difficult to trace the epistemologicalorigins of this consensus, but the end result is a broad base of agreementthat human beings should be treated in certain ways.