INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT 3: 10 DISCOVERIES IN THE WAR ON CANCER

Clinical features of bone invasion bygingival SCCs. (A) Intraoral view of gingival SCCs. (B)Radiographic evidence of bone invasion of the mandible. Arrowsoutline the lesion. (C) Surgically resected samples weredecalcified and stained with Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Theinfiltrative pattern of bone invasion is characterized by nests andprojections of tumor cells along an irregular front, residual boneislands within the tumor, and Haversian system penetration (×100).Arrowheads indicate osteoclasts. (D) Postoperative panoramicradiograph of a patient showing the resected mandible with a freefibula microvascular transfer in place.

Cancer starts when cells in the body begin to grow out of control.

Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed in males and females (AIHW, 2012a)....

Our bodies are the holders of over 60-90 trillion cells.

Lee Y, Schwarz E, Davies M, et al:Differences in the cytokine profiles associated with prostatecancer cell induced osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions in bone. JOrthop Res. 21:62–72. 2003. : :

The most common cancer among Canadian women in 2010 is breast cancer.

Thus, the links between telomeres and cancer and the discoveries being made on them is changing the world through current and future applications that have implications for cancer treatment, society, the economy, and technology....

How do cancer cells circumvent various approches and treatments and what can be done about it?

The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma in situ.

Eramo A, Lotti F, Sette G, et al:Identification and expansion of the tumorigenic lung cancer stemcell population. Cell Death Differ. 15:504–514. 2008. : :

The cancer cells develop in the milk ducts of the breast.

Tirino V, Camerlingo R, Franco R, et al:The role of CD133 in the identification and characterisation oftumour-initiating cells in non-small-cell lung cancer. Eur JCardiothorac Surg. 36:446–453. 2009. : :

The purpose of the lungs is to help one breathe....

Furthermore, governments and institutions around the word spend billions of dollars on research cancer; better cancer treatment as a result of research in cancer and telomeres would save the world a lot of money in the future.

1. Be certain you’ve done research on cell division, specifically on how cells become cancerous.

There are numerous ways breast cancer can be treated if found early.

A recombinant soluble form of RANKL, together withM-CSF, induces osteoclastogenesis from mouse bone marrow cells orspleen cells in the absence of osteoblasts (,).RANKL was first cloned during a search for apoptosis regulatorygenes in mouse T cell hybridoma and was named TNF-relatedactivation-induced cytokine (TRANCE) (). Two other groups also isolatedligands of OCIF and OPG, respectively, which turned out to beidentical to TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE)(,). RANKL is a type II transmembraneprotein of the TNF ligand family that is expressed in cells such asosteoblasts and T cells ().RANKL-deficient mice exhibit typical osteopetrosis due to lack ofosteoclasts, suggesting that RANKL is an absolute requirement forosteoclast development ().

8. Discuss one observation that you found interesting while looking at the onion root tip cells?

Colon cancer has always been an issue in the world.

Approximations suggest that one in eight women in the United States will develop invasive breast cancer during the course of their life (American Cancer Society, 2013).

Normal body cells can either become cancerous by losing or gaining a function.

Thyroid cancer is the tenth most common cancer in Canada [2].

Ricci-Vitiani L, Lombardi DG, Pilozzi E,et al: Identification and expansion of humancolon-cancer-initiating cells. Nature. 445:111–115. 2007. : :