Duhem specifically states that the
The Duhems made sure that Pierre was well educated. Starting at theage of seven he was given private lessons with a small group ofstudents, on grammar, arithmetic, Latin, and catechism. A letter hewrote about the siege of Chateaudun he experienced in October 1870attests to his being already a literate writer by the age of nine. Theyoung Duhem was witness to some troubling times, with theFranco-Prussian War raging until the armistice in February 1871 and theParis Commune in March. The Duhems had avoided the advance of thePrussians against Paris but were caught up in the siege of Chateaudun;they barely escaped to Bordeaux, returning to Paris after the armisticeand just before the Paris Commune. That social experiment lasted onlytwo months, though it set the stage for some wide-rangingtransformations to French culture that were to have great consequenceswhen they were later established permanently. Among the Commune'sdecrees were the separation of church from state, the rendering of allchurch property into public property, and the exclusion of religionfrom schools. The Duhems did not approve of these measures and wereparticularly chagrined by some of the extreme actions taken by the mostradical elements of the Commune, such as the desecration of churchesand graveyards. For the Duhems, the Commune was a paradigm of anarchyand irreligion.
There is no such thing as the Duhem-Quine Thesis.
A First Look: Duhem, Quine, and the Problems of Underdetermination.
That was a time in the 1990s when I backed off from the “champion of Popper” stance and took on a Masters in History and Philosophy of Science to find out what it was like to approach the field like a novice, with a relatively open mind.
Duhem pointed out that the outcome .On Duhem's and Quine's Theses.
It was hard to find a thesis topic, I really wanted to work on objective knowledge or metaphysical research programs but there was nobody who could supervise those topics so I had to settle for something that a member of staff could handle. Alan was the best of a small bunch, the other two were social constructivists and he suggested the Duhem problem which turned out to be a nice pick although he had to practically push me over the line to get the work done. He was a fine supervisor.