A synthesis of research on academic achievement in second language

Two major reviews of the research on educating English learners have recently been completed, one by the National Literacy Panel (August & Shanahan, in press), the other by researchers from the Center for Education, Diversity, and Excellence, or CREDE (Genesee, Lindholm-Leary, Saunders, & Christian, 2006). It would be impossible to summarize the reports fully here, and educators are encouraged to obtain and study them. The reports' key conclusions can help us forge a foundation for large scale improvements in the education of ELLs. The findings and recommendations can be summarized in three major points:.

A synthesis of research on academic achievement in a second language.

Synthesis of Research on Problem Solving - Jim …

A synthesis of research on academic achievement in a ..

Following the completion of the first phase of research in 2001, CREDE researchers extended the knowledge base that can be used to improve the education of diverse students by carrying out systematic, thorough, and critical reviews of research related to the themes. Seven synthesis teams were created, each involving researchers, practitioners, and policy experts, to survey and critique the available research on a theme and make recommendations for future research agendas. The chapters in this volume report on the work of the team charged with reviewing research on the language and academic development of students who come to school with no proficiency or limited proficiency in English; that is, English language learners (ELLs). The volume reviews and summarizes scientific research on three fundamental aspects of the education of ELL students: their oral language development, their literacy development, and their academic development.

A synthesis of research on academic achievement in second language…

If we are to make a strong case for music education, we cannot do so merelyby focusing on its cultural value to civilization. We cannot do so by justdiscussing what it does for the human spirit. We must begin to use theinformation at hand from th e cognitive sciences. We need to carry on researchon the academic achievement of music students and make that information broadlyavailable to all those engaged in educational planning and practice. We need tonote the results of music education in the improved development of higher orderthinking skills, including analysis, synthesis, logic, and creativity; improvedconcentration and lengthened attention spans; improved memory and retention;and improved interpersonal skills and abilities to work with others incollaborative ways.

A synthesis of research on academic achievement in a second language…

We also can not say whether there is an optimal amount of time during the school day or across the years that primary language instruction should be provided. The CREDE synthesis (Genesee et al.) included a number of studies of two-way bilingual education and other types of programs where children are in primary language instruction for many years. It concluded that more primary language instruction and for a greater portion of children's schooling careers leads to higher levels of ELLs' school success. The National Literacy Panel (August & Shanahan), in contrast, drew on a somewhat different body of research that did not include the longer-term studies because they did not satisfy certain methodological requirements. The most important of these requirements was that children in different programs be equivalent in terms of prior achievement and other characteristics that could influence outcomes and lead to misleading conclusions if not controlled. The NLP could reach no conclusion about the relative benefits of more or less primary language instruction.

A Synthesis of Research on Second Language ..

The following general references provide a well-balanced introduction to the broad field of language and literacy development. Readers interested in understanding the debates about how best to teach reading will appreciate and may also wish to go back in history to read the classic . provides an up-to-date, relatively brief overview of the more-recent evidence-based approaches to reading instruction. is an excellent, comprehensive synthesis of reading research. A more recent synthesis targeting the prevention of reading difficulties is presented in , published by the National Academy Press. provides a meta-analysis of evidence-based practices related to phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. This panel report led to the expression of scientifically based reading research (SBRR), which continues to figure prominently in federal reading legislation. offers a review of research conducted in the first decade of the 21st century. , a handbook, is similar but focuses specifically on early literacy research. also contains extensive reviews of the literature.

A synthesis of research on academic achievement in second ..

The NLP review and Slavin and Cheung's review did, however, report that studies found Spanish and English reading can be taught simultaneously (at different times in the school day), with mutual benefit to literacy development in both languages. The likely explanation for this finding and the more general finding that primary language instruction promotes achievement in a second language is "transfer." A large body of research reviewed by both the CREDE and NLP researchers suggests that literacy and other skills and knowledge transfer across languages. If you learn something in one language & mdash; such as decoding, comprehension skills, or a concept such as democracy — you either know it or can more easily learn it in a second language.