10–100 μm) to submicrons or nanometers (e.g

fur from the sable marten, a small carnivorous mammal
derived from the leaves of wintergreen, meadowsweet, willow bark or other plants. It can also be produced synthetically by heating with carbon dioxide
insect secretion
cloth made from the fiber produced by the larvae ('silk worm') of certain bombycine moths, the harvesting of which entails the destruction of the insect the sodium salt of alginic acid extracted from brown seaweed.
white solid used as an acidity regulator in foods. It is mainly used in the manufacturing of baking powder. Produced by combining and .
the sodium salt of . Produced by reacting with . Used as a food preservative. bicarbonate of Soda
Soda Ash. A sodium salt of .
chemical term for table salt. It can be mined (rock salt), obtained by adding water to salt deposits (evaporated salt) or obtained from oceans and salt lakes (sea salt).
Caustic Soda. A water-soluble solid usually produced by processing salt water. It used to be obtained from the ashes of a certain kind of seaweed.
the sodium salt of
the sodium salt of sulfated ethoxylated
prepared by sulfation of followed by neutralization with
an inorganic salt. White to yellowish powder with sulfur dioxide odor. Used as a disinfectant, antioxidant and preservative.
synthetic material generally prepared by the partial or total neutralization of using or .
prepared from and
the sodium salt of .
white powder obtained from fruit or produced synthetically
derived from raw materials of vegetable origin. Commercially known as Span 20
manufactured by reacting with to yield a mixture of esters. Commercially known as Span 60
derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially know as Span 80. The vegetable derived version is know as Span 80V
derived from raw materials of vegetable origin. Commercially know as Span 40
derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially known as Span 65. The vegetable derived version is know as Span 65V
derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially know as Span 85. The vegetable derived version is known as Span 85V
a sugar alcohol derived from fruit like cherries, plums, pears, apples or from corn, seaweed and algae
also known as "starter culture", "sourdough culture" or "sour culture". It is usually made with a mixture of flour and water inhabited by yeast and lactobacteria containing no animal ingredients. Sometimes yogurt is used in the starter. Bread made from a sourdough culture is called sourdough bread
oil found in the head of the various species of whales
fatty substance derived as a wax from the head of the sperm whale
aquatic animal or colony of animals of a 'low order', characterized by a tough elastic skeleton of interlaced fibers
found in the liver of the shark (and rats)
a complex carbohydrate found in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants such as corn, potatoes, wheat, beans and rice.
salt of stearic acid
fat from cows, pigs, sheep, dogs or cats. Can be obtained from vegetable sources
general name for the three glycerids (monostearin, distearin, tristearin). Formed by the combination of and , chiefly applied to tristearin, which is the main constituent of tallow or suet
prepared from sperm whale oil or vegetable sources
made from and
obtained by reacting with an edible fat or oil with or without the presence of a solvent
known under the brand name Splenda. It's produced from . Some but not all Splenda producers have confirmed that they don't use bone char as a filter. Sucralose is tested on animals.

kid-, pig- or calf-skin tanned
solid fat prepared from the kidneys of cattle and sheep
a sweet crystallizable material that consists wholly or essentially of . It is obtained commercially from sugarcane or sugar beet. Beet sugar is vegan, but some cane sugars are processed through .
a toxic colorless gas formed primarily by the combustion of sulfur-containing material, like fossil fuels.

ingredient is produced by chemical synthesis, which means that parts or elements are combined to form a whole. Unlike products, synthetic products are made from ingredients that do not occur (independently) in nature.

Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

IntroductionWhen the diameters of polymer fiber materials are shrunk from micrometers (e.g

Science of Advanced Materials (SAM) - New Titles at …

The aim of this study was to describe a simple boiling temperature soap-free emulsion polymerization for the synthesis of poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) at reduced polymerization time. FT-IR characteristic of the polymer showed that there was acrylamide group on the styrene. Thus, acrylamide was successfully incorporated into the polystyrene chain prior to electrospinning. Electrospun fibers of different diameters were fabricated from the styrene and acrylamide of different mole ratios to give poly (styrene-co-acrylamide), some of which resulted in bead formation. Many parameters can influence the transformation of polymer solutions into fibers through electrospinning. These parameters include: 1) the solution properties such as viscosity, elasticity, conductivity, and surface tension; 2) governing variables such as hydrostatic pressure in the capillary tube, electric potential at the capillary tip, and the gap (distance between the tip and the collecting screen); and 3) ambient parameters such as solution temperature, humidity, and air velocity in the electrospinning chamber. Variation and optimization of these parameters will results in fiber of different nanometer sizes that can have diverse and various applications including drug delivery, electrical and optical application etc. The poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) fiber formed is anticipated for diverse application such as Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) materials, filters, textile etc.

PDF Downloads : Oriental Journal of Chemistry

tasteless, odorless powder that occurs naturally in marble, , coral, eggshells, pearls or oyster shells
odorless white to off-white granules, powder or liquid. Produced in a variety of ways, including treating with , combining with a solution and by concentrating and purifying naturally occurring brines from salt lakes and salt deposits. Has many uses including additive for foods, deicing agent for sidewalks and roads, water treatment.
a synthetic preservative used to prevent crystal formation and to retard color loss. Has caused health problems and is banned in Australia and certain other countries.
also known as slaked lime. Used as acidity regulator in drinks and frozen foods or as a preservative. It's produced commercially by treating lime with water or by mixing and . It's most commonly derived from limestone, but can also derived from seashells.
the calcium salt of
(Monobasic, Dibasic and Tribasic) a mineral salt found in rocks and bones. Used as an anti-caking agent in cosmetics and food, mineral supplement, abrasive in toothpaste and jelling agent. Also known as calcium rock.
mineral calcium with .
the calcium salt of the ester of lactyl lactate. a vegetable wax obtained from candelilla plants.
obtained from sugarcane. In some countries (like the U.S.), cane sugar is often processed through .
used as a coloring. It is manufactured by heating carbohydrates with or without acids or alkalis. Possible carbohydrates used are corn, beet sugar, cane sugar, wheat or potatoes. The great majority of caramel is derived from corn and will be vegan. However, some caramel is derived from and not necessarily vegan.

a weak acid formed when carbon dioxide combines with water.
alpha carotene, and gamma-carotene
milk protein
fine wool from the cashmere goat and wild goat of Tibet
Obtained from the anal scent gland of the beaver
A vegetable oil expressed from the castor bean.
enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. It is derived from cattle liver or fungus and used in the food industry
dried and twisted intestines of the sheep or horse
roe of the sturgeon and other fish
the principal component of the fiber of plants. Cellulose is usually obtained from wood pulp or cotton (which contains about 90% cellulose)
found in or synthetic
, can be synthetic

charred bone or wood
organic base of the hard parts of insects and crustacea e.g. shrimps, crabs
soft leather from the skin of the chamois antelope, sheep, goats, deer etc.

a steroid alcohol occurring in all animal fats and oils, nervous tissue, egg yolk and blood.
used in products designed to help alleviate the effects of osteoarthritis. Produced synthetically or derived from the cartilage of cows, pigs, sharks, fish or birds

enzyme primarily derived from ox pancreas.
obtained from cinnamon leaves, coca leaves, balsams like storax or isolated from a wood-rotting fungus. Can be made synthetically.
derived from citrus fruits and since the 1920s commercially produced by fermenting sugar solutions with the microorganism Aspergillus niger. The main raw materials used in the production are corn-derived and molasses.
substance painfully scraped from glands in the anal pouch of the civet cat
thick liquid or semisolid tar obtained from bituminous coal (= soft coal)
red pigment extracted from the crushed carcasses of the female cochineal insect, a cactus-feeding scale insect
oil extracted from the liver of cod and related fish
modified food starch derived from . Used in frozen foods and canned products. Often labeled as 'Food Starch - Modified'
a protein found in most connective tissues, including bone, cartilage and skin. It is usually derived from cows or chickens
a purified protein derived from animal sources. It's produced by breaking down to smaller protein fragments
Can be from plant, animal and synthetic sources. Most and colors are derived from . Coal tar in itself is considered a vegan product. However, coal tar derivatives cause frequent allergic reactions, like skin rashes and hives. It has also shown to cause cancer in animals. For this reason, colors and dyes are continuously tested on animals. That's why and colors and dyes can generally not be considered vegan and I will mark them as on this page.

hard calcareous substance consisting of the continuous skeleton secreted by coelenterate polyps for their support and habitation
derived from dried corn kernels
a form of made from . It is used as a sweetener
steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex and their synthetic analogs.
fixed oil derived from the seeds of the cultivated varieties of the cotton plant

Colorant derived from
amino acid that oxidizes to form
amino acid found in the hair protein keratin

Morphological Characterization of Nanofibers: Methods …
07/11/2015 · Yes, but only liquids with low surface tension, e.g

Papers and Research data from Khademhosseini Lab

06/10/1994 · Original Article

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Treatment of Deep Cartilage Defects in the Knee with Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation