The crystalline parts of this polymer are shown in blue.

Donald C. Sundberg, Ph.D., Director of the Nanostructured Polymers Research Center in the Materials Science Program at the University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA. Professor Sundberg has been working in the field of emulsion polymers for over 44 years. He received a bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from Worcester Polytechnic Institute in Massachusetts and his Ph.D. from the University of Delaware. He spent 5 years working on impact modifiers for ABS polymers with the Monsanto Company prior to pursuing an academic career. His research interests include polymerization kinetics in solution, bulk and emulsion systems, interfacial science and polymer morphology control, diffusion in polymers, micro- and nano-encapsulation, coatings, and controlled release technology.

Table 1: The color and color codes of the synthesized polymers.

The physical properties of a polymer such as its strength and flexibility depend on:

Synthesis and Polymer Technology - Fraunhofer IAP

Control of polymerization by means of catalysts and additives has led to a large variety of materials based on polyethylene that exhibit differences in densities, degrees of chain branching and crystallinity, and cross-linking. Some major types are low-density (LDPE), linear low density (LLDPE), high-density (HDPE).

List of synthetic polymers - Wikipedia

The Number of average molecular weight of the synthesized polymers were determined by GPC method. The analyses were performed by using an Agilent 1200 Series. Average molecular weight of polymer II obtained by conventional heating was found as 3406 g /mol while that of its counterpart synthesized by microwave was found as 4000 g/mol. In terms of the polymers that synthesized under MI, the polydispersity index (PDI) values that determined for the polymers I, II, III, VI and VII were lower than the value calculated for the polymers synthesized under CH and were more closer to the value of 1. Li et al. reported that molecular weight and PDI values for P-NPAPA polymer 2780 and 1.25, However we defined these values for polymer 3 as 3000, 1.12 for MI method and 2250, 1.30 for CH method []. Molecular weights and heterogeneous distribution values obtained from GPC diagram for polymers synthesized with microwave and traditional are presented in Table 5.

A much used polyurethane is made from TDI and a polyol derived from epoxypropane:

This book offers the fundamentals of polymer design and synthesis

General procedures under microwave irradiation (MI): Polymerization process was implemented with free radical polymerization and it was used azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator. Household type microwave oven was used for the microwave irradiation. Polymerization reaction was applied as follows: a dry glass tube (10 mL) was filled with the mixture of 5 mmol azoacrylate monomer, 2.6 × 10-2 mmol initiator (azobisisobutyronitrile, AIBN) and 5 mL DMF as solvent. The reaction mixture was consecutively degassed through vacuum, charged with N2 (five cycles), sealed under N2, placed into a self-improved in-house microwave oven and refluxed within CCl4 for an hour. This reaction was ended by immersing the tube in ice-water. After sufficient time, the reaction mixture was poured into a large excess of methanol. In order to remove unreacted monomer, the suspension was filtered. The obtained polymers were purified by precipitating from THF by adding of methanol and dried under vacuum at room temperature. The color and color codes of the resulting polymers are shown in Table 1.

Custom Synthesis - Monomer-Polymer

In the field of nanomedicine, the global trend over the past few years has been toward the design of highly sophisticated drug delivery systems with active targeting and/or imaging capabilities, as well as responsiveness to various stimuli to increase their therapeutic efficacy. However, providing sophistication generally increases complexity that could be detrimental in regards to potential pharmaceutical development. An emerging concept to design efficient yet simple drug delivery systems, termed the “drug-initiated” method, consists of growing short polymer chains from drugs in a controlled fashion to yield well-defined drug–polymer prodrugs. These materials are obtained in a reduced amount of synthetic steps and can be self-assembled into polymer prodrug nanoparticles, be incorporated into lipid nanocarriers or be used as water-soluble polymer prodrugs. This Perspective article will capture the recent achievements from the “drug-initiated” method and highlight the great biomedical potential of these materials.

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Polyurethanes are made by the exothermic reactions between alcohols with two or more reactive hydroxyl (-OH) groups per molecule (diols, triols, polyols) and isocyanates that have more than one reactive isocyanate group (-NCO) per molecule (diisocyanates, polyisocyanates). For example a diisocyanate reacts with a diol:

Polymer Particle Synthesis | Dolomite Microfluidics

The physical properties, as well as the chemical structure, of a polyurethane depend on the structure of the original reactants, in particular the R1 and the R2 groups. The characteristics of the polyols - relative molecular mass, the number of reactive functional groups per molecule, and the molecular structure - influence the properties of the final polymer, and hence how it is used.