Synthesis of Phenylacetic Acid - Erowid

Phenethyl alcohol (No. 987), phenylacetaldehyde (No. 1002), phenylacetic acid (No. 1007), ethyl phenylacetate (No. 1009), isobutyl phenylacetate (No. 1013), isoamyl phenylacetate (No. 1014) and -tolylacetaldehyde (No. 1023) have been tested for their ability to induce reverse mutation in various strains of (e.g., TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and TA1538) in the presence or absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system. None of the compounds was mutagenic when tested at concentrations up to 5000 µg/ml or 50 mg/plate (Oda et al., 1979; Florin et al., 1980; Rapson et al., 1980; Ishidate et al., 1984; Heck et al., 1989; Kato et al., 1989; Fujita et al., 1994). No reverse mutation was seen when various strains of (TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and TA1538) were incubated with ethyl (-tolyloxy)acetate (No. 1027) at up to 3600 µg per plate (Wild et al., 1983), 2-phenoxyethyl isobutyrate (No. 1028) at 3600 µg per plate (Wild et al., 1983) or sodium 2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)propanoate (No. 1029) at up to 5000 µg per plate (Varley & Trenchard-Morgan, 1985), with or without metabolic activation.

Preparation of phenylacetic acid

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CRITERIA FOR 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID (2,4-D) - ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

Synthesis of phenylacetic acid by carbonylation, …

James, M.O., Smith, R.L., Williams, R.T. & Reidenberg, M. (1972) The conjugation of phenylacetic acid in man, sub-human primates and some non-primate species. , 182, 25–35.

(1) Consider The Synthesis Of Phenylacetic Acid (s ..

Hijikata, Y. (1922) The influence of putrefaction products on cellular metabolism. II. On the influence of phenylacetic and phenylproionic acids on the distribution of nitrogen in the urine. ., 51, 141–154.


phenylacetic acid | Sigma-Aldrich

Esters are formed byacid-catalysed esterification with azeotropic distillation of water orby direct synthesis in which the appropriate ester of monochloroaceticacid is reacted with dichlorophenol to form the 2,4-D ester.

Search results for phenylacetic acid at Sigma-Aldrich

Synthesis of 2,4-D 2,4-D is commonly prepared by the condensation of 2,4-dichloro-phenol with monochloroacetic acid in a strongly alkaline medium atmoderate temperatures or by the chlorination of phenoxyacetic acid, butthis method leads to a product with a high content of 2,4-dichloro-phenol and other impurities.

α-(Phenylthio)phenylacetic acid for synthesis | VWR

Kay, H.D. & Raper, H.S. (1922) Mode of oxidation of fatty acids with branched chains. II. The fate in the body of hydratropic, tropic, atrolactic and atropic acids together with phenylacetaldehyde. .,16, 465–474.

US8362294B2 - Phenylacetic acid derivatives - Google …

Phenylacetic acid was shown to be devoid of immunomodulatory effects in a testing strategy to evaluate the effects of 35 commonly used flavouring ingredients on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Female CD-1 or B6C3F1 mice were given phenylacetic acid at a dose of 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg bw per day intragastrically for 5 days. bacterial challenge was conducted to assess cell-mediated immunity and the antibody response to sheep erythrocytes was determined as a measure of humoral immunity. Body weights, lymphoid organ weights and spleen cellularity were also measured. Cyclophosphamide served as a positive control. Phenylacetic acid did not modulate the cell-mediated or humoral response at any dose tested (Gaworski et al., 1994).

Another use is in the synthesis of Triafungin.

A rapid screening protocol was used to evaluate the potential immunotoxicity of flavouring ingredients, including phenylacetic acid. The protocol incorporated key elements of the National Toxicology Program’s tier testing strategy, including measurement of body weight, lymphoid organ weight and cellularity, as well as functional tests of the humoral (antibody plaque-forming cells) response to sheep erythrocytes and cell-mediated immunity to bacterial challenge. Decreases in body weight, spleen and/or thymus weight or a decrease in spleen cellularity may be indicative of depressed immune competence. The number of antibody-producing plasma cells, the result of antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, after immunization with a T-cell-dependent antigen such as sheep red blood cells, provides information about the functional integrity of, and communication among, several cell populations important in antibody-mediated immunity, including T cells, B cells and macrophages. The model system was selected because the pathogenesis of this infection and the host’s immune response are similar in mice and humans. The model system is useful for assessing immunosuppression since both immunocompetent T cells and macrophages are required to control infection and supply protective immunity. Phenylacetic acid administered orally to groups of 10–20 female CD-1 or B6C3F1 mice, aged 6–8 weeks, at doses as high as 100 mg/kg per day had no effect on spleen weight, thymus weight, spleen cellularity, anti-sheep red blood cell response or mortality (Vollmuth et al., 1989).