Calvin M. 1956. The photosynthetic carbon cycle. : 1895-915

Eric T. Stiller (US), John C. Keresztesy (US), Joseph R. Stevens (US), Stanton A. Harris (US), and Karl August Folkers (US) discovered the molecular structure of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and synthesized it (, , ). Its molecular structure is designated 2-methyl-3-hydroxyl-4, 5-di (hydroxymethyl)-pyridine. This vitamin is necessary for the synthesis and breakdown of amino acids, the building blocks of protein; aids in fat and carbohydrate metabolism; aids in the formation of antibodies; maintains the central nervous system; aids in the removal of excess fluid of premenstrual women; promotes healthy skin; reduces muscle spasms, leg cramps, hand numbness, nausea & stiffness of hands; and helps maintain a proper balance of sodium & phosphorous in the body.

Synthesis of nucleoprotein in bean root cells.

is vital in its synthesis, and scurvy ischaracterized by  taking place as a result of  deficiency.

acid synthesis in bean root cells ..

Carl Peter Henrik Dam (DK) discovered while working with chickens on synthetic diets. It seemed to be necessary for normal blood clotting so he named it , for koagulation (the German spelling). Dam, Fritz Schönheyder (DK), and Erik Tage-Hansen (DK) discovered that the blood of chickens became depleted of when they were placed on a vitamin K deficient diet (, , ).

Synthesis of nucleoprotein in bean root cells; ..

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (GB-IN), in 1928, wrote the essay, , which Jane Jacobs and others have since referred to as . This is that sheer size very often defines what bodily equipment an animal must have: “Insects, being so small, do not have oxygen-carrying bloodstreams. What little oxygen their cells require can be absorbed by simple diffusion of air through their bodies. But being larger means an animal must take on complicated oxygen pumping and distributing systems to reach all the cells” ().

Bonner JF, Huang R-c, Guilden R. 1963. Chromosomally directed protein synthesis.  50: 893-900


One of two strategies used: activating group attached to the growingchain is released and replaced by the incoming unit (as in protein synthesis),or an activating group in the incoming unit is released (as in DNA and RNAsynthesis).] What advantages does a strategy based on these rulesprovide?


“The characters of the individual are referable to paired elements (genes) in the germinal matter that are held together in a definite number of linkage groups…. The members of each pair of genes separate when germ cells mature…. Each germ-cell comes to contain only one set…. These principles…enable us to handle problems of genetics in a strictly numerical basis, and allow us to predict…what will occur…. In these respects the theory [of the gene] fulfills the requirements of a scientific theory in the fullest sense.… It is difficult to resist the fascinating assumption that the gene is constant because it represents an organic chemical entity. This is the simplest assumption that one can make at present, and since this view is consistent with all that is known about the stability of the gene it seems, at least, a good working hypothesis.” Thomas Hunt Morgan ().

Spiegelman S, Kamen MD. 1946. Genes and nucleoproteins in the synthesis of enzymes.  104: 581-84

, Protein synthesis: The Revolution in Biology ..

G. David Novelli (US) and Fritz Albert Lipmann (DE-US) confirmed the catalytic function of in citric acid synthesis using cell-free extracts of and ().

Wilson AT, Calvin M. 1955. The photosynthetic cycle. CO2 dependent transients.  77: 5948-57

Emergence of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) …

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was obtained from RocheDiagnostics (Basel, Switzerland); MG132, Z-VAD-FMK, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) and apocynin were purchased fromMerck-Calbiochem (Darmstadt, Germany); and lipopolysaccharide(LPS), phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), Boc-D-CMK and H2DCFDAwere obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). The ATPassay kit and radioimmunoprecipitation buffer (Beyotime, Shanghai,China) were used for cell lysis. Antibodies directed towards humanIL-1β (#2021) were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology(Danvers, MA, USA), caspase-1 (#PAB0811) was obtained from Abnova(Taipei, Taiwan) [an additional cleaved caspase-1 antibody wasobtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA(sc-22163)], and actin from Beyotime. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 1A8[specific to the HTNV nucleocapdis protein (NP)] was prepared inour laboratory as previously described (,).

Jean Louis Auguste Brachet (BE) hypothesized that proteins are synthesized on ribonucleoprotein granules within the cytoplasm ().

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12) Ninomiya, A., Ogasawara, K., Kajino, K., Takada, A., and Kida, H. 2002. Intranasal administration of a synthetic peptide vaccine encapsulated in liposome together with an anti-CD40 antibody induces protective immunity against influenza A virus in mice. Vaccine, 20: 3123-3129.