The Use of Esters of N-Hydroxysuccinimide in Peptide Synthesis
Convenient Synthesis of N-Hydroxysuccinimide Esters …
Kleanthis G. Dendrinos,; Aristotle G. Kalivretenos. Synthesis of N-hydroxysuccinimide esters using polymer bound HOBT. Tetrahedron Letters. 1998, 39(11), 1321-1324.
Synthesis of N-hydroxysuccinimide esters of N …
Kleanthis G. Dendrinos,; Aristotle G. Kalivretenos. Synthesis of N-hydroxysuccinimide esters using polymer bound HOBT. Tetrahedron Letters. 1998, 39(11), 1321-1324. Wlad Kusnezow,; Anette Jacob,; Alexandra Walijew,; Frank Diehl,;örg D. Hoheisel. Antibody microarrays: An evaluation of production parameters. PROTEOMICS. 2003, 33, 254-264,. Sulfhydryl- (SH) and amino-reactive heterobifunctional cross-linking agent: Enzym. Immunoassay, 81 (1981); J. Immunol. Meth., 62, 123 (1983). Applications in immunodiagnostics: Biopolymers, 22, 481 (1983).
First published on 22nd June 2015
AB - The design, synthesis, characterization, and preliminary biological assessment of three dendrimers are reported. All three dendrimers, 1-3, present twelve paclitaxel groups linked by acylation of the 2′-hydroxyl group. The linker for dendrimers 2 and 3 also includes a disulfide. Installation of the paclitaxel group relies on reacting twelve primary amines of a second generation triazine dendrimer, a scaffold available on kilogram scale, with a dichlorotriazine bearing the drug. This dichlorotriazine is available in four steps by (i) reacting paclitaxel with glutaric anhydride, (ii) activating with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), (iii) treating the resulting ester with either 1,3-diaminopropane (for 1) or cystamine (for 2 and 3), and (iv), finally, reacting with cyanuric chloride. After reaction with the dendrimer, the resulting monochlorotriazine groups are reacted with 4-aminomethylpiperidine (AMP) and then a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) group of molecular weight 2 kDa. Two different PEG-NHS esters are employed that differ in lability. For 1 and 2, the PEG incorporates an ester-linked succinic acid group. For 3, the PEG incorporates an ether-linked acetic acid group. Both mass spectrometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy prove valuable for determining the final ratios of dendrimer:paclitaxel:AMP:PEG. These values are typically 1:12:12:9. Cytotoxicity of these constructs using an MTT-based assay and PC-3 cells reveals IC50 values in the low nanomolar range with dithiothreitol and glutathione enhancing the toxicity of the disulfide-containing constructs 2 and 3. Preliminary toxicology assessment of 1 suggests that it is well tolerated in vivo with preferential renal clearance. The elimination half-lives of all of the dendrimers appear shorter than predicted from the previous results. Tumor localization is observed for all the three dendrimers.
N-Hydroxysuccinimide - Wikipedia
The coupling reaction between N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) esters and amines could be performed under mild conditions with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide (BSA) as coupling reagent and no additional acid/base is required.