Estrogen synthesis and signaling pathways during …
Estradiol (E2) is a steroid hormone and is part of the oestrogens group of hormones and is the principle oestrogen in females. Estrone and estriol are chemically similar to estradiol but are found in lower concentrations and have a lower estrogenic activity. Production of oestrogens occurs in the ovary via , the and the Zona reticularis of the . In males in it is produced in sertoli cells found in the testes. Estradiol is synthesised from cholestrol.
Oestrogens have a number of functions related to reproduction and other areas of physiology. In relation to the reproductive role of oestrogens, they stimulate follicular growth and maturation, induce the female to begin displaying oestrous behaviour to facilitate mating, prepare the external genitalia for copulation and create favourable conditions for the development of fertilised egg cells. Oestrogens also contribute to the growth and development of mammary tissue and prepare the uterus for parturition.
Effects on reproductive organs:
Vagina: slight mucous secretion, hyperaemia, oedema
Cervix: relaxation, liquification of mucous plug (causing the bull string)
Uterus: stimulates uterine gland development, sensitization of the endometrium to oxytocin, immune activation (local), leucocyte infiltration, secretion of PGF2a and PGE2
Fallopian tube: increased motility and cilia activity
Mammary gland: stimulates mammary duct development
Corpus luteum: Luteolytic (bovine and ovine) but luteotrophic (equine and porcine)
Where oestrogens stimulate growth of follicles in the ovaries, oestrogens secreted from the ovary in the ( and ) lead to hypertrophy of the epithelium and the endometrium. Secretory glands within the uterus enlarge and secretion is initiated leading to thickening of tissues. The blood vessels supplying the uterus and external genitalia dilate and blood flow to these areas increases significantly. Oedema occurs within the uterus and surrounding connective tissues. Oestrogen also causes increased uterine muscle tone. In the cervix oestrogens stimulate increased mucus secretion and the vaginal epithelium becomes keratinised.
In males the target tissue is the brain where it causes maturation of the brain during development. This maturation process ensures the appropriate development of male sexual behaviours. E2 in the male also inhibits long bone growth.
Estrogen synthesis and signaling pathways during ..
PPT - Estrogens, Progestins, & Hormone Therapy …
To date, there is no established role for "alternative and complementary medicines"in the treatment of any liver disease, though it's possible some of the herbalremedies might have some effect.
Estrogens, Progestins, & Hormone Therapy
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