Synthesis of a new fluorine-18-labeled bexarotene …

N2 - The synthesis of halogenated analogues of 4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethynyl]benzoic acid (1), known commonly as bexarotene, and their evaluation for retinoidX receptor (RXR)-specific agonist performance is described. Compound 1 is FDA approved to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL); however, bexarotene treatment can induce hypothyroidism and elevated triglyceride levels, presumably by disrupting RXR heterodimer pathways for other nuclear receptors. The novel halogenated analogues in this study were modeled and assessed for their ability to bind to RXR and stimulate RXR homodimerization in an RXRE-mediated transcriptional assay as well as an RXR mammalian-2-hybrid assay. In an array of eight novel compounds, four analogues were discovered to promote RXR-mediated transcription with EC50 values similar to that of 1 and are selective RXR agonists. Our approach also uncovered a periodic trend of increased binding and homodimerization of RXR when substituting a halogen atom for a proton ortho to the carboxylic acid on 1.

Synthesis of [C-11]Bexarotene by Cu-Mediated [C …

Synthesis of a new fluorine-18-labeled bexarotene analogue for PET imaging of retinoid X receptor

Synthesis of [11C-carbonyl]Bexarotene by Transition …

AB - The synthesis of halogenated analogues of 4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethynyl]benzoic acid (1), known commonly as bexarotene, and their evaluation for retinoidX receptor (RXR)-specific agonist performance is described. Compound 1 is FDA approved to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL); however, bexarotene treatment can induce hypothyroidism and elevated triglyceride levels, presumably by disrupting RXR heterodimer pathways for other nuclear receptors. The novel halogenated analogues in this study were modeled and assessed for their ability to bind to RXR and stimulate RXR homodimerization in an RXRE-mediated transcriptional assay as well as an RXR mammalian-2-hybrid assay. In an array of eight novel compounds, four analogues were discovered to promote RXR-mediated transcription with EC50 values similar to that of 1 and are selective RXR agonists. Our approach also uncovered a periodic trend of increased binding and homodimerization of RXR when substituting a halogen atom for a proton ortho to the carboxylic acid on 1.

Scheme 3 Total synthesis of bexarotene.

AB - Bexarotene is an RXR-selective vitamin A analog that has been shown to prevent ER-negative mammary tumorigenesis in animal models. While investigating the mechanism by which bexarotene prevents ER-negative breast cancer development, we found that the expression of cyclin D1, a critical cell cycle promoter, was repressed by bexarotene in vitro and in vivo. Time course and cycloheximide experiments show that repression of cyclin D1 is a late effect and requires new protein synthesis. Previously we discovered that DEC2 (differentially expressed in chondrocytes-2), a helix-loop-helix transcription repressor, was induced by bexarotene in human mammary epithelial cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that bexarotene represses the transcription of cyclin D1 through induction of DEC2. Luciferase reporter studies demonstrated that either bexarotene treatment or forced expression of DEC2 can repress the transcription of a cyclin D1 promoter reporter by affecting the basal transcriptional activity. Results from chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that bexarotene treatment causes the recruitment of DEC2 and HDAC1 (histone deacetylase 1) to the cyclin D1 promoter. Co-immunoprecipitation confirms the interaction between DEC2 and HDAC1, suggesting that the recruitment of HDAC1 to the cyclin D1 promoter is through DEC2. Trichostatin A, a HDAC inhibitor, reverses the cyclin D1 repression by bexarotene, suggesting that repression of cyclin D1 involves histone deacetylation. Knock-down of DEC2 by siRNA abolishes the cyclin D1 repression, further supporting our hypothesis. Finally, we demonstrated that overexpression of DEC2 dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and repressed the expression of cyclin D1 in human mammary epithelial cells. These results suggest that bexarotene down-regulates cyclin D1 through induction of DEC2, followed by recruitment of HDAC1 to the cyclin D1 promoter causing transcriptional repression. By elucidating the mechanism by which rexinoids inhibit cell proliferation, it will be possible to develop more effective and less toxic drugs to prevent ER-negative breast cancers.

Nanoformulation of dual bexarotene-tailed …

The synthesis of halogenated analogues of 4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethynyl]benzoic acid (1), known commonly as bexarotene, and their evaluation for retinoidX receptor (RXR)-specific agonist performance is described. Compound 1 is FDA approved to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL); however, bexarotene treatment can induce hypothyroidism and elevated triglyceride levels, presumably by disrupting RXR heterodimer pathways for other nuclear receptors. The novel halogenated analogues in this study were modeled and assessed for their ability to bind to RXR and stimulate RXR homodimerization in an RXRE-mediated transcriptional assay as well as an RXR mammalian-2-hybrid assay. In an array of eight novel compounds, four analogues were discovered to promote RXR-mediated transcription with EC50 values similar to that of 1 and are selective RXR agonists. Our approach also uncovered a periodic trend of increased binding and homodimerization of RXR when substituting a halogen atom for a proton ortho to the carboxylic acid on 1.

Bexarotene-Induced Hypothyroidism: Bexarotene Stimulates the ..

Carbon-11 (11C; t1/2 = 20.4min) labeled radiotracers are used extensively to study pharmacokineticsof drug compounds in vivo via positron emission tomography (PET),a sensitive and noninvasive molecular imaging modality., In the present study, we describe an efficient synthesis of [11C]bexarotene by rapid Cu-mediated [11C]CO2-fixation using an arylboronate precursor, thereby preparingthe isotopologue at the carbonyl position of the corresponding carboxylicacid. We further carried out a preliminary PET–magnetic resonance(PET–MR) imaging study in a nonhuman primate with this radiotracerto determine brain uptake and biodistribution of this labeled drug.

Management of alopecia areata: an update | British …

Bexarotene is an RXR-selective vitamin A analog that has been shown to prevent ER-negative mammary tumorigenesis in animal models. While investigating the mechanism by which bexarotene prevents ER-negative breast cancer development, we found that the expression of cyclin D1, a critical cell cycle promoter, was repressed by bexarotene in vitro and in vivo. Time course and cycloheximide experiments show that repression of cyclin D1 is a late effect and requires new protein synthesis. Previously we discovered that DEC2 (differentially expressed in chondrocytes-2), a helix-loop-helix transcription repressor, was induced by bexarotene in human mammary epithelial cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that bexarotene represses the transcription of cyclin D1 through induction of DEC2. Luciferase reporter studies demonstrated that either bexarotene treatment or forced expression of DEC2 can repress the transcription of a cyclin D1 promoter reporter by affecting the basal transcriptional activity. Results from chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that bexarotene treatment causes the recruitment of DEC2 and HDAC1 (histone deacetylase 1) to the cyclin D1 promoter. Co-immunoprecipitation confirms the interaction between DEC2 and HDAC1, suggesting that the recruitment of HDAC1 to the cyclin D1 promoter is through DEC2. Trichostatin A, a HDAC inhibitor, reverses the cyclin D1 repression by bexarotene, suggesting that repression of cyclin D1 involves histone deacetylation. Knock-down of DEC2 by siRNA abolishes the cyclin D1 repression, further supporting our hypothesis. Finally, we demonstrated that overexpression of DEC2 dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and repressed the expression of cyclin D1 in human mammary epithelial cells. These results suggest that bexarotene down-regulates cyclin D1 through induction of DEC2, followed by recruitment of HDAC1 to the cyclin D1 promoter causing transcriptional repression. By elucidating the mechanism by which rexinoids inhibit cell proliferation, it will be possible to develop more effective and less toxic drugs to prevent ER-negative breast cancers.