(vi) Bromobenzene to 1-Phenylethanol
pathway of 2-phenylethanol from shikimic acid using isolated ..
The inhibitory capacities of synthesized sodium and ammonium salts were at first analyzed in double stable transfectants of intact HEK 293 cells expressing both 5-LO and 5-LO activating protein (FLAP), thereby possessing all the necessary cellular machinery required for LTs biosynthesis . Zileuton and CAPE were used as reference. As shown in , compounds 4 and 5 have similar 5-LO products biosynthesis inhibitory activity in intact HEK293 cells as Zileuton and CAPE (3) at concentrations of 1μM. This result clearly shows the effectiveness of the synthesized boron salts as transporter of CAPE, where a total or even partial hydrolysis occurs for the release of CAPE (3). Indeed, the formation of CAPE (3) under these biological conditions was confirmed using HPLC and UV-vis spectroscopy (see ). Likewise, a peak in the 11B NMR spectrum for salt 4 was observed in DMSO-d6 after one hour along with significant amounts of a peak at 19ppm for degradation product boric acid, B(OH)3. The stability of these salts was examined using representative salt 5, but compound 4 showed similar reactivity (see ).
First convert benzaldehyde to benzoic acid, ..
(iii) As we have seen in the previous case, electron-donating groups decrease the strengths of acids, while electron-withdrawing groups increase the strengths of acids. As methoxy group is an electron-donating group, 4-methoxybenzoic acid is a weaker acid than benzoic acid. Nitro group is an electron-withdrawing group and will increase the strengths of acids. As 3,4-dinitrobenzoic acid contains two nitro groups, it is a slightly stronger acid than 4-nitrobenzoic acid. Hence, the strengths of the given acids increase as: