List of antibiotics - Wikipedia

Certain gram negative bacteria possess mutated porin molecules through which certain beta-lactams cannot pass, thus rendering these organisms impervious to the antibiotic.

The following is a list of antibiotics

Cephalosporin drugs are beta lactam antibiotics that inhibit the cell wall of bacteria

Types of antibiotics (deprecated - use jsmol version)

Additionally, certain gram negative bacteria have developed specialized enzymatic pumps which actively transport broad ranges of beta-lactams out of the periplasmic space.

Synthesis of β-Lactam Antibiotics: Chemistry, …

Cephamycins have a 7-alpha-methoxy group that gives resistance to beta-lactamases and makes them different from other cephalosporins. Cephamycins are grouped with the second-generation cephalosporins because they have similar activity, with one important exception -- additional activity against gram-negative.


The synthesis of s-methyl and o-methyl β-lactam antibiotics

Without the structural support of cross-linked peptidoglycan, bacteria are sensitive to a variety of environmental stresses that result in lysis of the bacteria; consequently, beta-lactam antibiotics are bactericidal.

The β-lactam antibiotics are ..

This class of antibacterials share a common mechanism of action and a common structural motif known as the "Beta-lactam Ring" which gives the class its namesake.

Beta-lactam Antibiotics | Pathway Medicine

Since 2000 about 20 new antibiotics have been launched, covering five new drug classes for combating bacterial diseases. These five new classes are represented by linezolid (intravenous and oral oxazolidinone, active against Gram-positive cocci, approved 2000), daptomycin (intravenous lipopeptide, active against Gram-positive cocci, approved 2003), retapamulin (topical pleuromutilin, active against Gram-positive cocci, approved 2007), fidaxomicin (oral macrocycle, active against , approved 2010), and bedaquiline (intravenous diarylquinoline, active against , approved 2012). lists new antibiotics approved since the start of the second millennium.

Kinetically controlled synthesis of β-lactam antibiotics ..

More serious but infrequent reactions include: black, tarry stools; painful or difficult urination; antibiotic-induced colitis (severe watery diarrhea, severe stomach cramps, fever, and weakness).

Beta-lactam antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed ..

Beta-lactamase inhibitors inhibit bacterial beta-lactamase, thus preventing inactivation of the beta-lactam and re-establishing its bactericidal activity.

Synthesis of β-Lactam Antibiotics: ..

Different beta-lactams are more or less susceptible to these beta-lactamases and relatively resistant beta-lactams are used during therapy if beta-lactamases are of concern.

as well as for the synthesis of a number of other antibiotics of ..

The emergence and spread of resistance to antibiotics always has accompanied their clinical use. During the past 20 years, however, physicians have experienced a worrisome situation, described by Shlaes [] and by Pendleton [], involving a significant increase in morbidity and mortality due to bacterial infections in both community and hospital settings. In particular, two types of strains have compromised the clinical utility of currently available antibiotics and underscored the need for new compounds: