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and Adami, R., "Nanomaterials and Supercritical Fluids," J.
Synthesis of noble metallic nanoparticles, in general, and silver nanoparticles (SNPs), in particular, currently are of special interest. In the present paper, an overview of the enhanced properties of SNPs and consequential applications of SNPs are discussed. Common synthesis methods and their comparison with the microemulsion technology, particularly advantages of SNPs formation with microemulsion technology, are discussed. A brief overview of the basics of microemulsion technology for nanoparticles formation is also presented. The complete topical review of microemulsion synthesis technique used to date for the generation of SNPs is discussed comprehensively. Control parameters have been explicated for influencing size, size uniformity, and stability aspects of the SNPs reported in the literature, allowing a tailored synthesis for specific application. Recent modifications made on the synthesis of SNPs to obtain monodisperse, high yield and stability are also discussed. Lastly, some future trends and perspectives in these research areas are outlined.
Example 1. Synthesis of gallium oxide Ga2O3
In this review, we discuss the synthesis of functional nanoparticles using supercritical fluids, focusing on their unique characters. Enhanced transport properties, larger solubility, and easy operation in changing the phase behavior realize the instantaneous formation of solid products, leading to the synthesis of fine nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. Several methods are shown to prepare organic and inorganic nanoparticles using supercritical carbon dioxide or water. We then introduce our recent activities on the supercritical hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles whose surface is modified with organic molecules. The organic molecules change the surface chemical character of the metal oxide nanoparticles, facilitating their handling and hybridization. We hope that this review provides a guide to the synthesis of various nanoparticles that are used as a key component for functional materials and future nanodevices.
involved in the use of supercritical fluids ..
Synthesis of many specialty chemicals involve use of organic solvents. Our objective in this project is to determine the feasibility of carrying out organic synthesis reactions in supercritical fluids. We propose to use supercritical fluids (SCFs), specifically supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), as the reaction media. Although SCFs have seldom been explored for this purpose, they have properties that could make them nearly the ideal media for conducting organic synthesis reactions. SCFs are inert to most reactions, non-toxic, cheap, readily available, and environmentally acceptable. In addition, SCF densities can be varied over a wide margin by slight changes in temperature and/or pressure hence affecting reaction rate and selectivities by solubility and/or partial molar volume control.