Social Stress: Theory and Research.

This is true in capitalistic and developed countries, having its origins in the prehistoric past. Social factors and stressful life events not only cause people to become depressed but also in many cases predispose people to depression by becoming contributory stressors.

true in the case of social stresses, like social defeat ..

4. McEwen BS. Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(3):171-9.

Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis.

One type of stress-buffering agent is social support. Social support can be defined as resources provided by others that help a person to cope better with problems. Research has shown that persons with more social support are less affected (or unaffected) by negative life events. Supportive relationships contribute to well-being because they provide a source of intimacy, acceptance, and confiding about emotions (emotional support), which provides buffering effects across a broad range of life stressors. Supportive persons may also offer useful advice and guidance (informational support). By providing such resources, personal relationships help to reduce the impact of stress on depression and anxiety. Some studies have also suggested that social support can provide buffering effects that reduce the risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease or cancer.

Stress, Social Support, and the Buffering Hypothesis …

Personality characteristics also may serve as a stress-buffering resource. For example, a personality complex termed hardiness has been found to provide buffering effects. Hardiness is defined as scoring high on attributes of commitment (being involved with other people rather than detached or alienated), control (taking control over one’s decisions and actions, rather than passivity and power lessness), and challenge (the ability to tolerate uncertainty and see life events as a challenge rather than a threat). Persons who score higher on hardiness show less illness at high levels of stress, compared with persons low on hardiness. Thus individuals who score higher on this personality complex are more resistant to stress.

Another factor could be the social structure of families from different cultures.
Everyone knows that life is stressful, especially because a lot is expected from people in this society.

Social Causes of Depression - personality research

It is normal to become depressed if one believes that there is nothing one can do to prevent a negative outcome (Gable & Nezlek, 1998). Stressful life events are a big cause of depression; even though they were discussed by Beattie, their importance was insufficiently stressed.

When a marriage is not working it turns into a stressor, which often causes depression among females and leads males to alcohol abuse.

Health Disparities and Stress Hypothesis - Robert Turner

Applying the principles of positive emotional plasticity to rewiring the stress response is a novel intervention that merits further evaluation. Stress-processing circuitry is formed early in life or during periods of trauma, and stored in implicit memory systems. Excessive and, especially, inappropriate activation of the stress circuitry strengthens maladaptive circuits and can lead to persistent maladaptive (allostatic) brain states. We hypothesize that with the recognition that dominant neurocircuitry can lead to persistent brain states, a new approach can be utilized for health care treatment of stress-related symptoms and diseases. Potentially, providing an indi-vidual with the skills to reconsolidate those stress citcuits, and thus decrease or reverse allostatic load, may improve health and well-being. Therefore, we propose a new paradigm for health care – focusing on rewiring the stress response in favor of adaptive neuroplasticity

IvanovRochester Institute of Technology One of the most important social causes for depression is a stressful marriage.

DIATHESIS-STRESS MODEL (Social Science) - what-when-how

AB - Social support has been reliably related to better physical health outcomes. One influential model suggests that social support is related to lower cardiovascular disease mortality because it reduces the potentially deleterious consequences of cardiovascular reactivity during acute stress. However, received support and perceived support are separable constructs and epidemiological research suggests variability in links between received support and health. This is important because most social support and acute laboratory stress studies are essentially based on the receipt of support. In this paper, we focus on the conceptualization of received support and its implications for understanding links to support laboratory reactivity paradigms. This analysis highlights the role of theoretically important task, recipient, and provider categories of factors that moderate the effectiveness of received support, as well as the need to examine links between naturalistic perceptions of support and cardiovascular reactivity during stress.