Examples of observational studies:

Historically, drug and alcohol dependencies have been attributed to sin, disease,maladaptive, self destructive, and antisocial behavioral patterns. Addicted substanceabusers have frequently been charged with poor motivation, lack of insight, escapism, andthe development of self destructive tendencies. Khantzian (1985a) asserts theseallegations stem from archaic models of therapy and rigid attitudes as to which paradigmbest justifies substance abuse and subsequent treatment modalities. Many clinicians stillhold that psychotropic medication for coexisting pathology should not be administereduntil the patient has attained abstinence for at least one year. However, coexistingdisorders should be addressed concurrently, not ignored until abstinence has beenconsolidated (Weiss & Colins, 1992; Zweben & Smith, 1989).

The self-medication hypothesis: theory and content.

The self-medication hypothesis: epidemiology, clinical findings and implications.

The self-medication hypothesis of substance use …

Sometimes anxiety precedes alcohol or benzodiazepine dependence but the alcohol or benzodiazepine dependence acts to keep the anxiety disorders going, often progressively making them worse. However, some people addicted to alcohol or benzodiazepines, when it is explained to them that they have a choice between ongoing poor mental health or quitting and recovering from their symptoms, decide on quitting alcohol or benzodiazepines or both. It has been noted that every individual has an individual sensitivity level to alcohol or sedative hypnotic drugs, and what one person can tolerate without ill health, may cause another to suffer very ill health, and even moderate drinking can cause rebound anxiety syndrome and sleep disorders. A person suffering the toxic effects of alcohol will not benefit from other therapies or medications, as these do not address the root cause of the symptoms.

The self-medication hypothesis ..

Some sufferers attempt to correct their illnesses by use of certain drugs. is often self medicated with , , , or other mind-altering drug use. While this may provide immediate relief of some symptoms such as anxiety, it may evoke and/or exacerbate some symptoms of several kinds of mental illnesses that are already latently present, and may lead to /, among other side effects of long-term use of the drug.

The self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders: focus on heroin and cocaine dependence.

Self-Medication and Substance Abuse Self-Medication is ..

AB - Nicotine addiction is the leading cause of premature illness and death in the general population. Up to half of all cigarettes are consumed by a minority of the population: persons with schizophrenia and other forms of mental illness. Ironically, despite nicotine dependence being considered a serious and deadly form of addiction in the general population, research on smoking in mental illness is predominantly guided by the idea that smoking has beneficial medication-like treatment effects. This article considers pitfalls of adherence to the self-medication hypothesis as an exclusively held dogma. New evidence from animal modeling work suggests the need to broaden hypothesis-driven research on smoking in mental illness. Adolescent smoking could predispose to mental illness and/or increased nicotine dependence in schizophrenia may represent an involuntary, general addiction vulnerability that has little to do with the 'helpful' psychoactive effects of nicotine or other drugs.

The Self Medication Theory of Addiction - Verywell

The self-medication hypothesis (SMH) originated in papers by , Mack and Schatzberg, , and a response to Khantzian by Duncan. The SMH initially focused on heroin use, but a follow-up paper added cocaine. The SMH was later expanded to include alcohol, and finally all drugs of addiction.

Evidence For Self-Medication | Utah State University …

N2 - Nicotine addiction is the leading cause of premature illness and death in the general population. Up to half of all cigarettes are consumed by a minority of the population: persons with schizophrenia and other forms of mental illness. Ironically, despite nicotine dependence being considered a serious and deadly form of addiction in the general population, research on smoking in mental illness is predominantly guided by the idea that smoking has beneficial medication-like treatment effects. This article considers pitfalls of adherence to the self-medication hypothesis as an exclusively held dogma. New evidence from animal modeling work suggests the need to broaden hypothesis-driven research on smoking in mental illness. Adolescent smoking could predispose to mental illness and/or increased nicotine dependence in schizophrenia may represent an involuntary, general addiction vulnerability that has little to do with the 'helpful' psychoactive effects of nicotine or other drugs.

Time to Abandon the Self-Medication Hypothesis in …

According to Khantzian's view of addiction, drug users compensate for deficient ego function by using a drug as an "ego solvent", which acts on parts of the self that are cut off from consciousness by defense mechanisms. According to Khantzian, drug dependent individuals generally experience more psychiatric distress than non-drug dependent individuals, and the development of drug dependence involves the gradual incorporation of the drug effects and the need to sustain these effects into the defensive structure-building activity of the ego itself. The addict's choice of drug is a result of the interaction between the psychopharmacologic properties of the drug and the affective states from which the addict was seeking relief. The drug's effects substitute for defective or non-existent ego mechanisms of defense. The addict's drug of choice, therefore, is not random.