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4. Answer: D
Theory. Once a hypothesis has been verified and accepted, it becomes a theory. A
theory is a generally accepted explanation that has been highly developed and tested. A
theory can explain data and be expected to predict outcomes of tests. A fact is considered to
be an objective and verifiable observation; whereas, a scientific theory is a greater body of
accepted knowledge, principles, or relationships that might explain a fact. A law is an
explanation of events by which the outcome is always the same. A conclusion is more of an
opinion and could be based on observation, evidence, fact, laws, or even beliefs.

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Since it's instrument-inventing, not hypothesis-testing, must we exclude it as science?

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Although scientists differ on the extent of the ice, there is fairly widespread acceptance of the presence of glaciers at sea level at the equator, though some researchers prefer the term Slushball Earth. Many researchers have hypothesized the occurrence of two snowball events: the Sturtian (lasting from about 710 million to 670 million years ago) and the Marinoan (concluding about 635 million years ago.

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One of the most important ways in which the rock record supports evolutionary theory is the succession of fossils in older versus newer rock layers. As far back as the 18th century, scholars realized that fossils in older layers differed more from modern life forms than fossils in newer layers. While many fossils from the Pleistocene Ice Age resemble organisms living today, far fewer fossils from the Age of Reptiles do. If you venture back in the rock record to the Precambrian (prior to roughly 550 million years ago), you'll find few fossils of multicellular organisms at all, though you will find some. So striking has this fossil succession been that when asked what would disprove evolution, 20th-century British scientist J.B.S. Haldane quipped, "Fossil rabbits in the Precambrian." No such bunnies have ever been found.

No, because science is based on reality staying the same, and Nature ignores what humans vote upon.

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Primate fossils aren't the only evidence of divergence between the ancestors of humans and apes. Scientists can also look at the rates of change in nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA, and even the DNA of our gut bacteria, which have a symbiotic relationship with their primate hosts and can speciate as we do. A 2016 study examined two types of gut bacteria: Bacteroidaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae, which colonize the digestive tracts of chimps, bonobos, gorillas and humans. Comparing these strains of bacteria in different hosts indicates that we split from gorillas about 15.6 million years ago (this puts the human-gorilla split slightly further back in time than what mitochondrial DNA indicates, but it's in line with nuclear DNA). Gut bacterial differences also indicate that we diverged from chimps around 5.3 million years ago (this is a little more recent than what nuclear DNA differences suggest, but it's in agreement with mitochondrial DNA).

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It may even be possible to uncover the effects of epigenetics in human ancestors. DNA degrades over time, but methylated DNA degrades differently from unmethylated DNA, and this finding allowed a team of international researchers to infer chemical tweaks to ancient genes in a 50,000-year-old Denisovan female and a somewhat older Neanderthal female. In April 2014, they announced that gene silencing might account for skeletal differences between modern humans and Neanderthals. Although the results were promising, scientists advised against drawing conclusions from such a small sample.

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Writing about human evolution, the 19th-century naturalist confidently asserted that our evolution consisted of precisely 22 phases, and the 21st was a yet-to-be-identified "missing link." If Haeckel predicted the missing link, arguably found it, and he found it far from his European homeland. In Indonesia he oversaw the discovery of now known as in the 1890s. Returning home to Europe, Dubois expected a more enthusiastic reception than he got. His personality was likely part of his problem, but perhaps European scientists just weren't ready for a non-European ancestor. Decades later, suffered similar disillusionment when his description of the Taung Child () from South Africa aroused mostly scorn. Dart's find conflicted with what some early 20th-century anthropologists thought they knew about not debunked until 1953.