Suppose, for example, you are a pacifist, and disapprove ofwar.

The model of the world envisioned by the Gaia hypothesis isincompatible with that envisioned by the team. Because of the dominance of positive feedback loops,coupled with fixed limits on essential resources, the structureof the model preordains its conclusionthat human activity is on a collision course with nature. Whilethe values assumed for various parameters (the size of the stockof depletable resources, for example) affect the timing of thevarious effects, they do not substantially affect the nature ofthe outcome.

Hypothesis Lesson for Kids: Definition & Examples - …

So the justification of hypothetical imperatives doesn’t seem all that problematic.

Dictionary and a discussion of hypothesis ..

The striking feature of this discussion concerning Lauderdale’s definition is that the criticisms levelled against it could easily have led to a limited view of economic phenomena. It was clearly seen that the extension of the concept of wealth to include everything that is desired would mean the abandonment of the effort to arrive at any scientific laws involving objective wealth. But what was overlooked was that the very broadest conceptions of wealth involved an essential unity, from which a less limited political economy might take its point of departure.

For it is an hypothesis of the Christian faith.

However, the exclusive stress on wealth was motivated by other considerations, besides those expressed by McCulloch. There appears to be a significant degree of correlation betweenthe restriction of wealth to commodities and the restriction of the scope of political economy to the of wealth, leaving out its production, exchange, and consumption. Ricardo and Read provide excellent examples of this. Both conceived of wealth exclusively as material goods. And both emphatically limited political economy to the treatment of the of wealth. Alike in his and in his correspondence with Malthus, Ricardo had stressed this limitation of the scope of economics. Read (“an acute but neglected writer,” and one of the economists rediscovered by Seligman) treated economics as “an investigation concerning the right to wealth,” teaching what the rights and duties of men in society are with regard to property. Read may be considered to have invested with normative and ethical significance Ricardo’s conception of a science of the distribution of wealth. According to Ricardo, economics shows how wealth is distributed among the factors of production; according to Read, economics, in so doing, is at the same time laying down the law of the natural rights of the factors of production to their several shares.

(This example assumes, of course, that they’re studying solely for the sake of the grade.)
The necessary functions of the State--for example, ineducation--increased enormously.

Marx's theory of human nature - Wikipedia

No truly scientific result has ever been reached through group decisions and majority rule. The whole history of modern science in the West evidences the fact that no majorities, no tyrants, no constraint can prevail in the long run against individuals whenever the latter are able to prove in some definite way that their own scientific theories work better than others and that their own view of things solves problems and difficulties better than others, regardless of the number, the authority, or the power of the latter. Indeed, the history of modern science, if considered from this point of view, constitutes the most convincing evidence of the failure of decision groups and group decisions based on some coercive procedure and more generally of the failure of constraint exercised over individuals as a pretended means of promoting scientific progress and of achieving scientific results. The trial of Galileo, at the dawn of our scientific era, is in this sense a symbol of its whole history, for many trials have since actually taken place in various countries up to the present day in which attempts have been made to constrain individual scientists to abandon some thesis. But no scientific thesis has ever been established or disproved in the end as a result of any contraint whatever exercised upon individual scientists by bigoted tyrants and ignorant majorities.

For an example of this kind of criticism, see J. Robinson,  (Cambridge, 1932), p. 10.

(Both Hobbes and Kant thought that it was ..

This basic structure of the model is in some ways reinforcedand in some ways tempered by the presence of numerous positiveand negative feedback loops. loops are those in which secondary effects tend toreinforce the basic trend. An example of a positive feedback loopis the process of capital accumulation. New investment generatesgreater output, which, when sold, generates profits. Theseprofits can be used to fund additional new investments. Thisexample suggests a manner in which the growth process isself-reinforcing.

Cf., for example, F. H. Levi,  (4th ed.; University of Chicago Press, 1955), pp. 41 ff.

But before you start your experiment, you need to make a hypothesis

it is only a short step from these examples to the economic hypothesis that under a wide range of circumstances individual firms behave as if they were seeking rationally to maximize their expected returns, and had full knowledge of the data needed to succeed in this attempt; as if, that is, they knew the relevant cost and demand functions, calculated marginal cost and marginal revenue from all actions open to them, and pushed each line of action to the point at which the relevant marginal cost and marginal revenue were equal.