we reject the null hypothesis and conclude ..
The table "Testing Global Null Hypothesis…
In the statement, the option tells SAS to sort the categories of S by the order in which they appear in the dataset rather than alphabetical order. The option makes neither the reference group (i.e. the group for which both dummy variables are zero). Let's look at some relevant portions of the output of that differ from the analysis of the corresponding 2 × 2 table from the previous section of the notes.
Testing the Global Null Hypothesis; ..
In our 2 × 2 table smoking example, the residual deviance is almost 0 because the model we built is the saturated model. And notice that the degree of freedom is 0, too. Regarding the null deviance, we could see it equivalent to the section "Testing Global Null Hypothesis: Beta=0," by likelihood ratio in SAS output.
28/04/2014 · Assuming alpha = .05, since p-value
The second statement indicates that if two events, A and B, are independent then the probability of their intersection can be computed by multiplying the probability of each individual event. To conduct the χ2 test of independence, we need to compute expected frequencies in each cell of the table. Expected frequencies are computed by assuming that the grouping variable and outcome are independent (i.e., under the null hypothesis). Thus, if the null hypothesis is true, using the definition of independence:
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The test statistic for the χ2 test of independence involves comparing observed (sample data) and expected frequencies in each cell of the table. The expected frequencies are computed assuming that the null hypothesis is true. The null hypothesis states that the two variables (the grouping variable and the outcome) are independent. The definition of independence is as follows: