Electrophoretic analysis of ruminal degradability of corn proteins.

Lallès, J.P., Tukur, H.M., Toullec, R. & Miller, B.G. 1996. Analytical criteria for predicting apparent digestibility of soybean protein in pre-ruminant calves. , 79: 475-482.

Protein Systems for Feeding Ruminant Livestock: A …

Technical note: A modified three-step  procedure to determine intestinal digestion of proteins.

PPT - Ruminant Protein Nutrition PowerPoint …

Russell, J.B., O'Connor, J.D., Fox, D.G., Van Soest, P.J. & Sniffen, C.J. 1992. A Net Carbohydrate and Protein System for evaluating cattle diets: ruminal fermentation. , 70: 3551-3561.

Protein Pathways in the Ruminant

Opstvedt, J., Miller, R., Hardy, R. W. & Spinelli, J. 1984. Heat-induced changes in sulfhydryl groups and disulfide bonds in fish protein and their effect on protein and amino acid digestibilities in rainbow trout (). , 32: 929-935.

In contrast, higher grain feeding increased efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in some studies because ruminal passage rate was increased.

Protein available for ruminant small intestine and the animal.

Cows and other ruminants have a very different digestive system than humans do which work very differently in order to digest the foods they eat. The stomachs that they have all serve different purposes in order to break down these foods properly. Humans eat so many types of foods that our bodies cannot always break down them correctly. This can lead to fatty build ups amongst other issues. This is why we often turn to things like diets in order to stay in shape. The ruminants use their different stomachs in a series events so that different protozoans and bacteria can properly breakdown the hard to digest foods. Some of us could use four stomachs to help do this but we have different options like aout there that can help us to produce the proper bacteria we need to maintain our diets. Each phase of the ruminants' digestion helps to provide them with valuable nutritional substances like protein.

Ruminant Protein Metabolism Why Consider Protein Metabolism

This review examines energy-protein interrelationships, protein requirements of poultry, pigs, fish and ruminants, including the need for indispensable amino acids measured as ileal true digestible amino acids. The effects of processing on protein quality for monogastrics and ruminants are summarised. The effects of dietary proteins on the immune response, as sources of nutrients other than amino acids and of anti-nutritional factors are also considered.

Journal of Animal Science - RUMINANT NUTRITION …

Adequate energy must be supplied by the diet to make efficient use of dietary protein. The optimum energy density varies with species, digestive system, age and environment. In the ruminant, sufficient nitrogen and rumen degradable protein must be supplied to maximise bacterial fermentation, energy digestibility and feed intake. For young, fast growing animals and high yielding lactating animals, aim to feed high-energy diets to maximise production potential of animal protein. In older or less productive animals lower energy diets may be used to achieve maximum protein deposition or secretion without excess fat deposition. Include just sufficient protein with a good amino acid balance to support maximum protein deposition at the highest possible efficiency. Surplus protein may increase protein deposition through enhanced protein turnover, reduced efficiency of retention, greater N excretion and pollution, but with reduced net energy, less fat deposition and improved carcass composition. Protein requirements, expressed as a percentage of diet or as a protein-energy ratio, decline with age in growing animals. Phase feeding multiple diets with decreasing protein content reduces environmental pollution. Fish have lower energy requirements and require a greater protein: metabolizable energy (ME) ratio. For mammals and birds, express amino acid requirements and feed values as true ileal digestibility. For fish, faecal values suffice or can be estimated using faecal digestibility in mink or ileal digestibility in chicks. Choose protein supplements to provide amino acids that complement amino acids of basic (usually cereal) energy sources. In ruminants, the supplement should provide undegradable but intestinally digested amino acids to complement microbial protein. Methionine (or methionine + cystine) and lysine are first or second limiting. Protein requirements are reduced, with less pollution, by selecting proteins and amino acid supplements to approach the ideal protein pattern, but specifying maximum levels for excess amino acids will increase cost. Determine marginal response to amino acid supply to calculate target amino acid level in feed.