Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective ..

Effects of FOXO1 and FOXO3a inhibitionon cell migration and colony formation of HepG2 cells. (Aa) Theresult of cell migration across an 8-μm pore size membrane withoutMatrigel. (Ab) Histogram indicating that the relative percentage ofcells across a membrane with 8-μm pores without Matrigel isincreased in cells transfected with FOXO1- and FOXO3a-specificsiRNAs, compared with that of the siR-NC-transfected cells. Therelative percentage of migrating cells from the siR-NC group wasdesignated as 100%. (Ba and c) Representative results of colonyformation and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Thenumbers of colonies and their sizes are strongly increased in cellstransfected with FOXO1- and FOXO3a-specific siRNAs, compared withthose in the siR-NC-transfected cells. Each bar corresponds to themeans ± SD of three experiments. (Bb and d) Histograms indicatethat FOXO1 and FOXO3a inhibition markedly promoted the colonyformation and anchorage-independent cell growth. The percentage ofcolony numbers in the negative control was designated as 100%.**P

LabBench Activity Key Concepts Diffusion

This tutorial introduces vacuole function

Plant Energy Transformations-Photosynthesis - …

Liberton M, Austin JR, Berg RH and Pakrasi HB (2011) Unique thylakoid membrane architecture of a unicellular N(2)‐fixing cyanobacterium revealed by electron tomography. Plant Physiology 155: 1656–1666.

Plant Cell | Everything about Plant Cell

Cyanobacteria are the evolutionarily oldest organisms with the capability of evolving oxygen, giving rise to the present day atmosphere. These prokaryotic microorganisms have the unique ability to perform oxygenic photosynthesis and respiration in the same cellular compartment. Some cyanobacteria can also fix atmospheric nitrogen alongside oxygenic photosynthesis and respiration. The redox components of these electron transport pathways are known to intersect in cyanobacteria. Majority of the energy‐intensive processes occur in specialised membranes known as thylakoids. The coexistence of such remarkably complex metabolic pathways in a single cyanobacterial cell provides them with the potential to thrive in a wide variety of ecosystems. This metabolic complexity has sparked significant interest towards cyanobacterial research for the production of various high‐value compounds with applications in the food, feed and fuel industry.

The functions of the cell membrane of biological cells include controlling the exchange of materials between the cell and its environment

IB Biology Notes - 8.1 Cell respiration

Metabolic pathways activated by PI3K are responsiblefor a wide range of cellular functions, including fatty acidoxidation inhibition and increased glucose consumption by tumorcells. Blockade of signaling pathways related to PI3K, such asclass I inhibitors of PI3K, mTOR, DNA-PK, PLK-1, CK2, ATM andPIM-1, may become a therapeutic strategy for treatment ofmalignancies (–).

What's the difference between Animal Cell and Plant Cell

The most important molecular mechanisms underlyingthe development and progression of cancer in patients with DMinclude oxidative stresses, generation of reactive oxygen speciesand nitric oxide with subsequent damage to cell membranes and DNA,overproduction of lactate byproducts, and pathologicaloverexpression of certain enzymes. Additionally, derangements inthe insulin-receptor signal transduction pathways and an impairedimmune system may contribute to oncogenesis. Obesity and metabolicdisorders contribute to a chronic inflammatory state, dysfunctionalhumoral and cellular immune responses, and decreased number andactivity levels of NK and NKT cell populations. Additionally,studies have demonstrated an association between abnormal glucosemetabolism and increased incidence of multiple malignancies,including colorectal, pancreatic, liver, breast, endometrial andprostate cancers.

for water in the electron-supply role; ..

When insulin binds to its receptor, two pathwaysbecome activated: mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) andphosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway (,).Activation of MAPK results in transmission of mitogenic signals tothe nucleus. Activation of the PI3K pathway leads to protein kinaseB (PKB) activation and conversion to its active form (Akt/PKB).Further activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)pathway enhances protein and fatty acid synthesis and inhibitsapoptosis (). Proteinshomologous to insulin, insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-Iand -II), regulate cellular growth and differentiation. This isaccomplished by signal transduction pathways through theirrespective receptors, IGF-IR and -IIR, and also by interactionswith insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs), IGFBP-1through 6 (,). IGF-I binding to IGF-IR results inincreased cellular proliferation and apoptosis inhibition. IGF-IIhas a similar effect but its function is mainly limited to thefetal period, and plays a major role in the development of majororgans. IR and IGF-IR belong to a molecular class of proteinscalled tyrosine kinase receptors. Intracellular pathways activatedthrough IGF-IR by IGF-I are similar to those pathways activated byinsulin binding its receptor ().In high concentrations, insulin activates its own receptor, IR, aswell as IGF-IR, stimulating cellular growth and proliferation. Asimilar cross-receptor activation phenomenon was reported with highIGF-I concentrations ()(). High post-prandial orexogenously-administrated insulin levels lead to the inhibition ofIGFBP-1 synthesis and, therefore, result in increased free IGF-Iconcentrations ().Additionally, the activation of IGF-IR and IR appears to beaffected by the function of another class of regulatory proteinscalled tyrosine phosphatases. Specifically, protein tyrosinephosphatase 1B (PTP1B) acts directly on IR, resulting in decreasedcellular insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, IR inhibitors appear toincrease insulin sensitivity, especially in tumor cells ().