"Role of the malate-aspartate shuttle on the metabolic ..
Web Figure 12.5.C Metabolite shuttles across the inner membrane of mitochondria. The two shuttles shown have both been demonstrated to work in isolated mitochondria. (Top) The malate/aspartate shuttle uses isoforms of two enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (1), and aspartate aminotransferase (2), to interconvert malate and aspartate, which are then exchanged using two transporters, the glutamate/aspartate (A) and the 2-oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) (B). The electrogenic glutamate/aspartate transporter provides directionality so that reducing equivalents are transferred into the mitochondrial matrix (see Web Figure 12.5.B). (Bottom) The malate/oxaloacetate (OAA) shuttle uses malate dehydrogenase isoforms (1) in the matrix and in the cytosol to interconvert malate and OAA, which are then exchanged by the OAA transporter (C). This shuttle can theoretically transfer reducing equivalents in either direction depending on the redox conditions on the two sides of the membrane. However, in plant cells it may only serve to export reducing equivalents. (Modified from Siedow and Day 2000.)
The malate-aspartate shuttle and the glycerol-3 ..
Schematic of the malate/aspartate shuttle
 Cheeseman AJ, Clark JB. Influence of the malate-aspartate shuttle on oxidative metabolism is a synaptosomes. J Neurochem 1988; 50: 1559-65.
The normal role of the malate-aspartate shuttle in mitochondria
As a component of the malate/aspartate shuttle, AGC1 transfers the reducing equivalents of NADH + H + from the cytosol into mitochondria ( Indiveri et al., 1987; Palmieri, 2004 ).