RNA Synthesis, Custom RNA Synthesis company - Bio-Synthesis

Step 1- Transcription involves the synthesis of mRNA from template DNA. Think of this step as making a RNA photocopy of a recipe from your DNA cookbook

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DNA makes RNA makes Protein (

RNA Synthesis and Splicing - Biochemistry - NCBI …


Similar signals
in DNA cause transcription to
stop
when the new RNA molecule is
completed.
RNA Editing
Our DNA contains
sequences of nucleotides
called
introns
that are
not involved in coding for proteins.
The
DNA sequences
that
code for proteins
are called
exons
because they are
"expressed"
in the synthesis of proteins.
When
RNA molecules
are
formed,
both the
introns
and
exons
are
copied
from the
DNA.
However, the
introns are cut out of RNA
molecules while they are still in the
nucleus.
The remaining
exons
are then
spliced back together
to form the
final strand of mRNA.
The Genetic Code
Proteins

are made by
joining amino acids
into

long chains
called
polypeptides.

Biochemists refer to RNA synthesis as transcription

Humans have roughly 22,000 genes.
The first step in decoding these genetic messages is to copy part of the nucleotide sequence from DNA into RNA, or ribonucleic acid.
These RNA molecules contain coded information for making proteins
RNA,
like DNA,
consists of a long chain of nucleotides,
and is made up of the
same things as DNA
(a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base)
except

for one small difference:
the sugar group in RNA is ribose.
RNA also differs from DNA
in the fact that it is
single stranded, and has the base uracil instead of thymine
(therefore, in RNA
A bonds with U
).
RNA is like a
disposable copy
of a
segment of DNA
In many cases, an
RNA molecule is a working copy of a single gene.
The ability to
copy a single DNA sequence into RNA
makes it possible for a
single gene to produce hundreds or even thousands of RNA molecules
There are
three main types
of RNA:
1.) messenger RNA (mRNA)
2.) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
3.) transfer RNA (tRNA)
The job of
messenger RNA (mRNA)
is to
carry copies of instructions
for the
assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA
to the rest of the cell
The job of
transfer RNA (tRNA)
is to
transfer, or move, amino acids to ribosomes
during
protein synthesis
The job of
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
is to
make up the major part of ribosomes.

RNA structure and synthesis
Click on the DNA Workshop Activity (arrow)  Alternative for studying protein synthesis, using larger scale paper cutouts, working in teams.

Custom mRNA Synthesis, mRNA Transcription, RNA …

Another paper3 describes a method for the inactivation of micro RNA (miRNA) that may help to elucidate their functions. It uses 2’-OMe-RNA oligonucleotides (23-mers, complementary to a target miRNA) with a cholesteryl group at the 3´terminus and phosphorothioates at positions 1 and 2 at the 5´end and at the last four positions at the 3´end. These oligos are called antagomirs. These molecules promote the cleavage of complementary miRNAs and thus should allow analysis of their function. The role of the PS linkages presumably is the stabilization against degradation in the mouse experiments as it is standard in the antisense field in such in vivo situations. And finally, a recent paper4 shows that PS does not systematically abolish siRNA activity, opening the way for some potentially less expensive stabilization of such molecules. Incorporation of 2’-OMe (in the sense strand) in combination with PS linkages should confer to siRNA increased resistance to degradation by nucleases, as well as prolonged serum retention. And it is also possible that such easy modification of siRNA may increase the specificity by eliminating sense strand recruitment in the RISC complex and thus reducing a source of off-target effect.

CRISPR RNA synthesis | Biolegio

RNA and Protein Synthesis by Ms Schwinge on Prezi


1. R.P. Iyer, W. Egan, J.B. Regan, and S.L. Beaucage, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 1990, 112, 1253-1254.
2. M. Overhoff and G. Sczakiel, EMBO Rep, 2005, 6, 1176-81.
3. J. Krutzfeldt, et al., Nature, 2005, 438, 685-9.
4. B.A. Kraynack and B.F. Baker, RNA, 2006, 12, 163-76.
5. B.J. Bergot and W. Egan, Journal of Chromatography, 1992, 599, 35-42.

DNA/RNA Synthesis / Custom RNA Oligos; DNA & RNA Synthesis DNA & RNA Synthesis

From RNA to Protein Synthesis - YouTube

Gene Link also offers custom synthesis of RNA and DNA chimeric oligos withinvestigator specified ribo or deoxy bases or 2’-O-methyl bases. The chimericoligos can also be synthesized with the regular phoshodiester bonds orsubstituted with phosphorothioate linkages. The combination of 2’-O- methylRNA bases with phosphorothioate internucleotide linkages imparts these oligosgreater nuclease resistance which is particularly useful for antisense studies(please refer to our technical sheet on Antisense Oligonucleotides for othermodifications). Custom phosphorothioate oligonucleotides synthesized by GeneLink can be specified to have all the diester bonds substituted or only someselected diester linkages depending upon the researchers experimentalrequirement. Substitution of all diester linkage is recommended to providegreater nuclease resistance.