Retinal prosthesis - Ophthalmology

The Argus® II Retinal Prosthesis System is surgically implanted in one eye. The individual wears glasses equipped with a camera that captures images and converts them into a series of small electrical pulses. The pulses are transmitted wirelessly to the prosthesis and its array of electrodes on the surface of the retina. These pulses are intended to stimulate the retina’s remaining cells, resulting in the corresponding perception of patterns of light in the brain. The patient then learns to interpret these visual patterns, thereby regaining some visual function.

Retinal Prosthesis | SpringerLink

Artificial retina co-developer Mark Humayun explains the retinal prosthesis.

Retinal Prostheses: Current Clinical Results and ..

In the subretinal approach to visual pros­thetics, electrodes are placed between the retinal pigment epithelium and the retina, where they stimulate the nonspiking inner retinal neurons.

Retinal Prosthesis posts encouraging results in clinical trial

The Boston Retinal Implant Project, a multidisciplinary team of scientists, engineers, and clinicians at research institutions across the U.S., is developing a retinal prosthesis that transmits information from a camera mounted on eyeglasses to a receiving antenna implanted under the skin around the eye using radiofrequency telemetry—technology similar to radio broadcast. The decoded signal is then delivered to an implanted subretinal electrode array via a cable that penetrates into the eye. The information delivered to the retina by this device is not related to direction of gaze, so to survey a scene a patient must move his head, instead of just his eyes.

2002-2006 Biocompatible Technology for a Light Sensitive Retinal Prosthesis

FDA Approval for Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System

Fabio Benfenati of the Italian Institute of Technology in Genoa and Guglielmo Lanzani at the institute’s Center for Nanoscience and Technology in Milan are also pursuing the subretinal approach to visual prostheses, developing a device based on organic polymers that could simplify implant fabrication. So far, subretinal light-sensitive implants appear to be a promising approach to restoring sight to the blind.

is a professor in the Department of Ophthalmology and Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory at Stanford University.

Retinal prosthesis - ResearchGate

To overcome these challenges, my colleagues and I have developed a wireless photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, powered by pulsed light. Our system includes a pocket computer that processes the images captured by a miniature video camera mounted on video goggles, which project these images into the eye and onto a subretinally implanted photodiode array. Photodiodes in each pixel convert this light into pulsed current to stimulate the nearby inner retinal neurons. This method for delivering the visual information is completely wireless, and it preserves the natural link between ocular movement and image perception.

Artificial retina co-developer Mark Humayun explains the retinal prosthesis.

Retinal Prosthesis | Annual Review of Biomedical …

Suprachoroidal prostheses can be larger than those implanted directly above or below the retina, allowing them to cover a wider visual field, ideal for navigation purposes.

Retinal Prosthesis - Idaho Health Insurance

Like subretinal prostheses, suprachoroidal implants utilize the bipolar cells and the retinal network down to the ganglion cells, which process the visual information before relaying it to the brain. But devices implanted in this suprachoroidal location can be larger than those implanted directly above or below the retina, allowing them to cover a wider visual field, ideal for navigation purposes. In addition, suprachoroidal electrode arrays do not breach the retina, making for a simpler surgical procedure that should reduce the chance of adverse events and can even permit the device to be removed or replaced with minimal damage to the surrounding tissues.

Retinal Prosthesis - IEEE Journals & Magazine

Subretinal prostheses implanted between the retina and the RPE, along with epiretinal implants that sit on the surface of the retina (see below), have shown good results in restoring some visual perception to patients with profound vision loss. However, such devices require technically challenging surgeries, and the site of implantation limits the potential size of these devices. Epiretinal and subretinal prostheses also face challenges with stability and the occurrence of adverse intraocular events, such as infection or retinal detachment. Due to these issues, researchers have been investigating a less invasive and more stable implant location: between the vascular choroid and the outer sclera. (See .)