T1 - New perpectives on soil erosion and conservation in the tropics

Already in the 1930's severalmethods,techniques and practices were devised for soil erosion control,mostly in the USA, such as: crop rotation, contour farming, stripcropping, vegetated waterways, cover crops, green manuring, cropresidue mulch, subsoiling and terracing.

Regional applied research on sandysoils

The rate and magnitude of soil erosion by water is controlled by the following factors:

Assessment of soil erosion in the Nepalese Himalaya, a

Soil surfaces that are not rough offer little resistance to the wind. However, ridges left from tillage can dry out more quickly in a wind event, resulting in more loose, dry soil available to blow. Over time, soil surfaces become filled in, and the roughness is broken down by abrasion. This results in a smoother surface susceptible to the wind. Excess tillage can contribute to soil structure breakdown and increased erosion.

Soil conservationresearch started a hundred years ago in the USA.

Evidence-based management of sediment movement from both prescribed fire and wildfire can reduce potential erosion and hence protect regional natural services such as soil profile formation, soil mineral health, the regulation of water quality and maintenance of local landscape character.

The rate and magnitude of soil erosion by wind is controlled by the following factors:

The economicsof soil erosion: theory, methodology and examples.

Managing soil erosion in the post-fire landscape requires an appreciation of the influencing environmental variables and the available mitigation options.

Soilerosionscience:Reflectionsonthelimitationsofcurrentapproaches.

Soil drifting is a fertility-depleting process that can lead to poor crop growth and yield reductions in areas of fields where wind erosion is a recurring problem. Continual drifting of an area gradually causes a textural change in the soil. Loss of fine sand, silt, clay and organic particles from sandy soils serves to lower the moisture-holding capacity of the soil. This increases the erodibility of the soil and compounds the problem.

Socio-economicfactorsinsoilerosionandconservation.

Tillage equipment that lifts and carries will tend to move more soil. As an example, a chisel plow leaves far more crop residue on the soil surface than the conventional moldboard plow but it can move as much soil as the moldboard plow and move it to a greater distance. Using implements that do not move very much soil will help minimize the effects of tillage erosion.

However, soil loss by rill erosion andephemeral gully erosion is not made undone by tillage.

Regional applied research on sandysoilsbyL.T.

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The rate and magnitude of soil erosion by tillage is controlled by the following factors:

ThecostofsoilerosioninNicaragua.

Use of Artificial Surface SealantsPetroleum, synthetic rubber, chemicals and water solubleplastics are examples of new products which have recently been used in dune anddrift sand stabilization as a result of advancement in research and technology.

The first experimentalsoil erosion plots were installed in the USA in 1917 .

Soilerosionasadriverofland-usechange.

Tillage erosion is the redistribution of soil through the action of tillage and gravity (). It results in the progressive down-slope movement of soil, causing severe soil loss on upper-slope positions and accumulation in lower-slope positions. This form of erosion is a major delivery mechanism for water erosion. Tillage action moves soil to convergent areas of a field where surface water runoff concentrates. Also, exposed subsoil is highly erodible to the forces of water and wind. Tillage erosion has the greatest potential for the "on-site" movement of soil and in many cases can cause more erosion than water or wind.