THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRESS AND DEPRESSION: ..
relationship between stress and depression?.
(2004) study illustrates how not only the future relationships of an infant with RAD are affected, but also how academic performance is affected in college.
The Relationship Between Fibromyalgia, Stress and …
Again this statement did not seem to have any merit, given that she declined to argue the point and assumed that men were more often cold and distant in relation to their family. Mulé strongly argued that gender stereotypes play a significant role in how women are perceived and thus perceive themselves.
Paulo Knapp I; Aaron T Beck II, III
7. Kendler KS, Karkowski LM, Prescott CA. Causal relationship between stressful life events and the onset of major depression. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156(6):837-41.
Reactive Attachment Disorder - personality research
Depression influences the health of a person either by having a direct relationship with the immune system, or by indirectly influencing how a person takes care of themselves. It is difficult to doubt that immunity and a person' psyche are interrelated, but what is difficult to explain is the causal relationship.
Agenda - 2017 Orthopaedic National Symposium
5. Monroe SM, Simons AD. Diathesis-stress theories in the context of life stress research: implications for the depressive disorders. Psychol Bull. 1991 Nov;110(3):406-25.
Major Depressive Disorder — NEJM
Loss of Energy
0. I have as much energy as ever
1. I have less energy than I used to have
2. I don’t have enough energy to do very much
3. I don’t have enough energy to do anything
As you can see, each item is rated 0 to 3 and a cumulative total gives an indication of severity of depression.
0–9 indicates that a person is not depressed,
10–18 indicates mild-moderate depression,
19–29 indicates moderate-severe depression and
30–63 indicates severe depression.
Reliability of BDI
Beck et al (1996) gave the test to 26 outpatients during two therapy sessions one week apart. The test-retest concordance was a very high 0.93.
The test is also high on split-test reliability (0.85). Most studies carried out on reliability find that the BDI is a reliable test of depressive severity.
Validity of BDI
The BDI has concurrent validity in that it tends to agree with other measures of depression.
It is also high on construct validity. An obvious way to judge validity of a test is to observe the person in real life situations. If the person scores as suffering severe depression then this should be observable in their behaviour.
BDI-II was introduced specifically to bring it into line with the DSM-IV diagnosis. BDI-II is seen as having higher content validity than its predecessor BDI-1A.
Note: the BDI is not intended to diagnose depression. It was designed by Beck to measure the severity of depression in patients aged 13 and over, who had already been psychiatrically diagnosed with depression. The danger of using it as a diagnostic tool is that the characteristics it is measuring may well be the symptoms of other unknown disorders.
A combination of genetic evidence and discussion of the permissive amine theory is needed here. Remember too that these are not mutually exclusive. A decreased sensitivity to a particular neurotransmitter is likely to be caused by a genetic abnormality!
All the usual points need to be borne in mind and spelt out to the examiner. Clearly you will want to mention trends within families, twin studies (MZ and DZ), adoption studies and gene research. These then need to be evaluated in terms of environmental influences and the extent to which they can explain patterns such as sex differences.
Family patterns and studies
Depression does tend to ‘run in families.’ Gershon (1990) found that the incidence of depression is up to three times higher in families with a history of the disorder than it is within the general population as a whole. Others have put this figure even higher. Weissman (1987) looked at the prevalence of affective disorders in general and found that family members with first degree relatives (parent, sibling) with a mood disorder were up to ten times more likely to suffer from one too.
We’ll distinguish here between unipolar and bipolar disorders:
Unipolar or major depression
Allen (1976) reported the following concordance rates:
Suggesting a genetic component to explain the difference between the two.
Bipolar (or manic) depression
It is worth mentioning that different studies have produced varying percentage figures but the overall trend is usually the same.
You must point out however the shortcomings of twin research: