Estrogenic regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis and …

AB - Purpose: Statins are pharmacologic inhibitors of the 3-hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase with potent regulatory effects on cholesterol biosynthesis in vitro and in vivo. There is accumulating evidence that, beyond their cholesterol-lowering properties, statins inhibit cell proliferation and promote apoptosis of malignant cells in vitro, but the mechanisms by which they generate such responses remain to be defined. Experimental Design: Combinations of experimental approaches were used, including immunoblotting and cell proliferation and apoptosis assays. Results: We provide evidence that fluvastatin is a potent inducer of apoptosis and suppresses proliferation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells in vitro. Such effects are mediated by direct targeting of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, as evidenced by the suppression of phosphorylation/activation of Akt, resulting in inhibition of its downstream effectors, mTOR and p70 S6 kinase. In addition, fluvastatin blocks the mTOR-dependent phosphorylation/deactivation of the translational repressor eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (elF4E)-binding protein, leading to the formation of elF4E-binding protein-elF4E complexes that suppress initiation of cap-dependent mRNA translation. Importantly, inhibition of p70 S6 kinase activity by fluvastatin results in the up-regulation of expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), a tumor suppressor protein with inhibitory effects on the translation initiation factor elF4A, suggesting a mechanism for the generation of antitumor responses. Conclusions: Altogether, our findings establish that fluvastatin exhibits potent anti-RCC activities via inhibitory effects on the Akt/mTOR pathway and raise the possibility that combinations of statins and Akt inhibitors may be of future therapeutic value in the treatment of RCC.

Coordinate up-regulation of TMEM97 and cholesterol biosynthesis ..

of cholesterol biosynthesis and cancer signaling

Regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis and cancer signaling

Background: Due to the hyper-activation of WNT signaling in a variety of cancer types, there has been a strong drive to develop pathway-specific inhibitors with the eventual goal of providing a chemotherapeutic antagonist of WNT signaling to cancer patients. A new category of drugs, called epigenetic inhibitors, are being developed that hold high promise for inhibition of the WNT pathway. The canonical WNT signaling pathway initiates when WNT ligands bind to receptors, causing the nuclear localization of the co-activator β-catenin (CTNNB1), which leads to an association of β-catenin with a member of the TCF transcription factor family at regulatory regions of WNT-responsive genes. The TCF/β-catenin complex then recruits CBP (CREBBP) or p300 (EP300), leading to histone acetylation and gene activation. A current model in the field is that CBP-driven expression of WNT target genes supports proliferation whereas p300-driven expression of WNT target genes supports differentiation. The small molecule inhibitor ICG-001 binds to CBP, but not to p300, and competitively inhibits the interaction of CBP with β-catenin. Upon treatment of cancer cells, this should reduce expression of CBP-regulated transcription, leading to reduced tumorigenicity and enhanced differentiation. Results: We have compared the genome-wide effects on the transcriptome after treatment with ICG-001 (the specific CBP inhibitor) versus C646, a compound that competes with acetyl-coA for the Lys-coA binding pocket of both CBP and p300. We found that both drugs cause large-scale changes in the transcriptome of HCT116 colon cancer cells and PANC1 pancreatic cancer cells and reverse some tumor-specific changes in gene expression. Interestingly, although the epigenetic inhibitors affect cell cycle pathways in both the colon and pancreatic cancer cell lines, the WNT signaling pathway was affected only in the colon cancer cells. Notably, WNT target genes were similarly downregulated after treatment of HCT116 with C646 as with ICG-001. Conclusion: Our results suggest that treatment with a general HAT inhibitor causes similar effects on the transcriptome as does treatment with a CBP-specific inhibitor and that epigenetic inhibition affects the WNT pathway in HCT116 cells and the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in PANC1 cells.

Regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis and cancer signaling.

N2 - Background: Due to the hyper-activation of WNT signaling in a variety of cancer types, there has been a strong drive to develop pathway-specific inhibitors with the eventual goal of providing a chemotherapeutic antagonist of WNT signaling to cancer patients. A new category of drugs, called epigenetic inhibitors, are being developed that hold high promise for inhibition of the WNT pathway. The canonical WNT signaling pathway initiates when WNT ligands bind to receptors, causing the nuclear localization of the co-activator β-catenin (CTNNB1), which leads to an association of β-catenin with a member of the TCF transcription factor family at regulatory regions of WNT-responsive genes. The TCF/β-catenin complex then recruits CBP (CREBBP) or p300 (EP300), leading to histone acetylation and gene activation. A current model in the field is that CBP-driven expression of WNT target genes supports proliferation whereas p300-driven expression of WNT target genes supports differentiation. The small molecule inhibitor ICG-001 binds to CBP, but not to p300, and competitively inhibits the interaction of CBP with β-catenin. Upon treatment of cancer cells, this should reduce expression of CBP-regulated transcription, leading to reduced tumorigenicity and enhanced differentiation. Results: We have compared the genome-wide effects on the transcriptome after treatment with ICG-001 (the specific CBP inhibitor) versus C646, a compound that competes with acetyl-coA for the Lys-coA binding pocket of both CBP and p300. We found that both drugs cause large-scale changes in the transcriptome of HCT116 colon cancer cells and PANC1 pancreatic cancer cells and reverse some tumor-specific changes in gene expression. Interestingly, although the epigenetic inhibitors affect cell cycle pathways in both the colon and pancreatic cancer cell lines, the WNT signaling pathway was affected only in the colon cancer cells. Notably, WNT target genes were similarly downregulated after treatment of HCT116 with C646 as with ICG-001. Conclusion: Our results suggest that treatment with a general HAT inhibitor causes similar effects on the transcriptome as does treatment with a CBP-specific inhibitor and that epigenetic inhibition affects the WNT pathway in HCT116 cells and the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in PANC1 cells.

Analyzing the regulation of metabolic pathways in …

N2 - Background. Tumor therapy mainly attacks the metabolism to interfere the tumor's anabolism and signaling of proliferative second messengers. However, the metabolic demands of different cancers are very heterogeneous and depend on their origin of tissue, age, gender and other clinical parameters. We investigated tumor specific regulation in the metabolism of breast cancer. Methods. For this, we mapped gene expression data from microarrays onto the corresponding enzymes and their metabolic reaction network. We used Haar Wavelet transforms on optimally arranged grid representations of metabolic pathways as a pattern recognition method to detect orchestrated regulation of neighboring enzymes in the network. Significant combined expression patterns were used to select metabolic pathways showing shifted regulation of the aggressive tumors. Results. Besides up-regulation for energy production and nucleotide anabolism, we found an interesting cellular switch in the interplay of biosynthesis of steroids and bile acids. The biosynthesis of steroids was up-regulated for estrogen synthesis which is needed for proliferative signaling in breast cancer. In turn, the decomposition of steroid precursors was blocked by down-regulation of the bile acid pathway. Conclusion. We applied an intelligent pattern recognition method for analyzing the regulation of metabolism and elucidated substantial regulation of human breast cancer at the interplay of cholesterol biosynthesis and bile acid metabolism pointing to specific breast cancer treatment.

molecules play in the regulation of ..

Purpose: Statins are pharmacologic inhibitors of the 3-hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase with potent regulatory effects on cholesterol biosynthesis in vitro and in vivo. There is accumulating evidence that, beyond their cholesterol-lowering properties, statins inhibit cell proliferation and promote apoptosis of malignant cells in vitro, but the mechanisms by which they generate such responses remain to be defined. Experimental Design: Combinations of experimental approaches were used, including immunoblotting and cell proliferation and apoptosis assays. Results: We provide evidence that fluvastatin is a potent inducer of apoptosis and suppresses proliferation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells in vitro. Such effects are mediated by direct targeting of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, as evidenced by the suppression of phosphorylation/activation of Akt, resulting in inhibition of its downstream effectors, mTOR and p70 S6 kinase. In addition, fluvastatin blocks the mTOR-dependent phosphorylation/deactivation of the translational repressor eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (elF4E)-binding protein, leading to the formation of elF4E-binding protein-elF4E complexes that suppress initiation of cap-dependent mRNA translation. Importantly, inhibition of p70 S6 kinase activity by fluvastatin results in the up-regulation of expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), a tumor suppressor protein with inhibitory effects on the translation initiation factor elF4A, suggesting a mechanism for the generation of antitumor responses. Conclusions: Altogether, our findings establish that fluvastatin exhibits potent anti-RCC activities via inhibitory effects on the Akt/mTOR pathway and raise the possibility that combinations of statins and Akt inhibitors may be of future therapeutic value in the treatment of RCC.

CHOLESTEROL LOWERING IN CANCER | Cholesterol | …

Background. Tumor therapy mainly attacks the metabolism to interfere the tumor's anabolism and signaling of proliferative second messengers. However, the metabolic demands of different cancers are very heterogeneous and depend on their origin of tissue, age, gender and other clinical parameters. We investigated tumor specific regulation in the metabolism of breast cancer. Methods. For this, we mapped gene expression data from microarrays onto the corresponding enzymes and their metabolic reaction network. We used Haar Wavelet transforms on optimally arranged grid representations of metabolic pathways as a pattern recognition method to detect orchestrated regulation of neighboring enzymes in the network. Significant combined expression patterns were used to select metabolic pathways showing shifted regulation of the aggressive tumors. Results. Besides up-regulation for energy production and nucleotide anabolism, we found an interesting cellular switch in the interplay of biosynthesis of steroids and bile acids. The biosynthesis of steroids was up-regulated for estrogen synthesis which is needed for proliferative signaling in breast cancer. In turn, the decomposition of steroid precursors was blocked by down-regulation of the bile acid pathway. Conclusion. We applied an intelligent pattern recognition method for analyzing the regulation of metabolism and elucidated substantial regulation of human breast cancer at the interplay of cholesterol biosynthesis and bile acid metabolism pointing to specific breast cancer treatment.