Inhibitory deficit hypothesis – …

Kuntsi, J., Oosterlaan, J., & Stevenson, J. (2001). Psychological mechanisms in hyperactivity: I. Response inhibition deficit, working memory impairment, delay aversion, or something else? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 199-210.

Psychology: What is inhibition deficit theory

Hasher, L. 2015. Inhibitory Deficit Hypothesis. The Encyclopedia of Adulthood and Aging. 1–5.

According to the inhibitory deficit hypothesis, ..

Several assumptions are important in understanding the initial model as it is applied to ADHD: (1) The capacity for behavioral inhibition begins to emerge first in development, ahead of most or all these four executive functions but possibly in conjunction with the first, nonverbal working memory. (2) These executive functions emerge at different times in development, may have different developmental trajectories, and are interactive. (3) The impairment that ADHD creates in these executive functions is secondary to the primary deficit it creates in behavioral inhibition (improve the inhibition and these executive functions should likewise improve). (4) The deficit in behavioral inhibition arises principally from genetic and neurodevelopmental origins, rather than purely social ones, although its expression is certainly influenced by social factors over development. (5) The secondary deficits in self-regulation created by the primary deficiency in inhibition feed back to contribute further to poor behavioral inhibition given that self-regulation contributes to the enhancement of self-restraint (inhibition). Finally, (6) the model does not apply to those having SCT. The model has been derived from earlier theories on the evolution of human language (Bronowski, 1977), the internalization of speech (Vygotsky, 1966) and the functions of the prefrontal cortex (Fuster, 1997). The evidence for the original model and its application to ADHD were reviewed in the initial text (Barkley, 1997b).

The inhibitory deficit hypothesis predicts that if older adults ..

There is little doubt that poor behavioral inhibition plays a central role in ADHD (see Barkley, 1997b; Nigg, 2001 for reviews). Although important in the progress of our understanding of ADHD, this conclusion still leaves at least two important questions regarding the nature of ADHD unresolved: (1) How does this account for the numerous other associated symptoms and cognitive deficits found in ADHD (described above) and apparently subsumed under the concepts of motor control and executive functioning? (2) How does this account for the involvement of the separate problem with inattention (poor sustained attention) in the disorder? A theoretical model of ADHD developed by the author not only encompasses many of these earlier explanations but may hold the answers to these questions as well as some unexpected directions that future research on ADHD might wish to pursue (Barkley, 1994, 1997a, 1997b, 2001b). The model has been subsequently revised (Barkley, 2012d) to show how deficits in EF can radiate outward to influence the extended phenotype of the individual into several hierarchically arranged levels of increasingly complex adaptive and social functioning.

Hasher, L. 2015. Inhibitory Deficit Hypothesis. The Encyclopedia of Adulthood and Aging. 1–5.
Quay, H. C. (1997). Inhibition and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 7-13.

Psychology of Aging Chapter 6 Exam #2 Flashcards | …

Interestingly, research shows that the problems with inhibition arise first (at age 3 to 4-years-old) ahead of those related to inattention (at age 5 to 7-years-old), and of those of SCT that may arise even later (ages 8 to 10-years-old) (Barkley, 2012a, 2012b; Hart et al., 1995; Loeber, Green, Lahey, Christ, & Frick, 1992; Milich et al., 2001). Whereas the symptoms of disinhibition in the DSM item lists seem to decline with age until early adulthood (age 30), perhaps owing to their heavier weighting with hyperactive than impulsive behavior, those of inattention remain relatively more stable during the elementary grades (Hart et al., 1995). But even those symptoms eventually decline by adolescence (Barkley, Fischer, Fletcher, & Smallish, 2002; Fischer, Barkley, Fletcher, & Smallish, 1993a) and further until early adulthood (Barkley et al., 2008), though not to normal levels in most cases. Why the inattention arises later than the disinhibitory symptoms and does not decline when the latter do over development remains an enigma. But it likely has to do with the fact that the inattention symptom list reflects the broader domain of executive deficits that may take more time to emerge in development yet prove highly persistent once apparent. As noted above, it could also simply reflect the different weightings of symptoms in the DSM. Those of hyperactivity may be more typical of preschool to early school-age children and are over-represented in the DSM list while those reflecting inattention may be more characteristic of school-age children and adults. Another explanation comes from the theoretical model described below (Barkley, 1997b, 2012) in which inhibition and the two types of working memory (nonverbal and verbal) emerge at separate times in development.

Overall results provide evidence for extending the inhibitory deficit hypothesis ..

What is the deficit model in psychology

Nigg, J. T. (1999). The ADHD response-inhibition deficit as measured by the stop task: Replication with DSM-IV Combined Type, extension, and qualification. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 393-402.

This inhibition-deficit hypothesis may be useful in explaining older adults ..

Inhibition and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ..

N2 - Age-related declines in attention and cognition have been associated with a difficulty in inhibiting the processing of task-irrelevant information (i.e., the inhibitory deficit hypothesis). However, evidence supporting the inhibitory deficit hypothesis remains equivocal, in part because of complexities in examining the processing of irrelevant stimuli using purely behavioral techniques. The effects of age on the processing of task- irrelevant stimuli were examined using scalp-recorded event-related brain potentials. Participants performed a visual discrimination task while standard and deviant auditory stimuli were presented in the background. Deviant auditory stimuli generated a mismatch negativity (MMN) wave that decreased with age, in part because of an age-related enhancement in sensory- evoked responses. The age-related changes in processing task-irrelevant auditory stimuli are consistent with the inhibitory deficit hypothesis and suggest that impaired inhibitory control of sensory input may play a role in the age-related declines in performance during selective attention tasks.