Pseudomonas: Volume 3: Biosynthesis of Macromolecules …

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Pseudomonas : Volume 3 Biosynthesis of Macromolecules …

Biosynthesis and Regulation of Anti-Fungal Metabolites by Pseudomonads

Pseudomonas, Volume 3: Biosynthesis of Macromolecules …

CLPs are produced by a variety of microorganisms and have activity against a wide range of plant and human pathogenic microorganisms, including fungi, oomycetes, enveloped viruses, mycoplasmas, trypanosomes, and gram-positive bacteria (). Insight into the biosynthesis, regulation, and transport of these versatile compounds can ultimately be exploited in combinatorial biosynthesis to generate new derivatives with more specific or different activities (, ). The mutagenesis, BAC cloning, sequencing, complementation, and in silico analysis performed in this study revealed that massetolide A biosynthesis is governed by three large NRPS genes. Although other CLP biosynthesis genes have been identified previously for Pseudomonas species, the complete massetolide A biosynthesis cluster was unknown. Furthermore, in contrast to other Pseudomonas CLP biosynthesis clusters, the mass genes are not physically linked in the SS101 genome but are organized in two separate clusters that are transcribed independently. The only Pseudomonas CLP biosynthesis cluster known to date, for which the genes are also physically disconnected, is the viscosin biosynthesis cluster in P. fluorescens SBW25, where viscA is separated from viscBC by 1.6 Mb on the physical map of the draft genome sequence (). Several flanking genes of the massetolide A biosynthesis cluster are conserved among other Pseudomonas CLP biosynthesis clusters and include LuxR-type transcriptional regulators, ABC transport carriers, and an RND-like outer membrane protein. Although their function in massetolide A biosynthesis needs to be assessed, the conserved positioning of these genes suggests an important role in CLP biosynthesis. Interestingly, no genes involved in the biosynthesis of the lipid side chain or in acyl transfer were found up- or downstream of the massetolide biosynthesis genes. Similar observations were made for the orfamide biosynthesis cluster () and other CLP gene clusters (). Gross et al. () postulated that the hydroxy fatty acids composing the lipid side chains of these CLPs may be produced by the primary metabolism, i.e., the type II fatty acid synthase systems.

Pseudomonas: Volume 3 Biosynthesis of Macromolecules …

Collectively, these results indicate that under the culture conditions used in this study, massetolide A biosynthesis is initiated in the early exponential growth phase. Although the results obtained with strain SS101 do not point to cell density-dependent regulation of massetolide A production, various methods were adopted to investigate whether N-acylhomoserine lactone (N-AHL)-mediated quorum sensing plays a role. When strain SS101 was coinoculated with the N-AHL reporter strains Chromobacterium violaceum O26 (), Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84I (), Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTLR4 (, ), E. coli pSCR1 (), and E. coli pSB401 (), no response of these N-AHL reporter strains was observed (data not shown). Furthermore, to separate putative metabolites produced by SS101 that may inhibit the induction of the N-AHL reporters, cell-free supernatant from stationary-phase cultures of SS101 were extracted with ethyl acetate and separated by HPLC, followed by overlay thin-layer chromatography analysis with C. violaceum CV026 as the reporter strain (, ). This approach also did not provide any indications of N-AHL production by strain SS101 (data not shown). Taken together, these results strongly suggest that, under the conditions tested, N-AHL-dependent quorum sensing does not appear to play a role in massetolide A biosynthesis in P. fluorescens SS101. Similar results were found for viscosin biosynthesis in P. fluorescens SBW25 (data not shown). in the biosynthesis of amphisin and syringomycin, N-AHL-mediated quorum sensing also does not appear to play a role, even though these CLPs are produced in the late exponential and stationary growth phases (). The fact that N-AHL-mediated quorum sensing does play a role in viscosin biosynthesis in the plant pathogenic P. fluorescens strain 5064 () and in putisolvin biosynthesis in P. putida strain PCL1445 () indicates that this type of regulation is strain dependent.

Pseudomonas : Volume 3 Biosynthesis of Macromolecules and Molecular Metabolism
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Pseudomonas: Biosynthesis of Macromolecules ..

The predicted gene product of ORF 2, located upstream of massA, belongs to the group of LuxR-type transcriptional regulators which are also found upstream of other Pseudomonas CLP biosynthesis clusters (Fig. ). This ORF shows 49% identity to syrF, which is involved in regulation of syringomycin biosynthesis (, ). The role of this LuxR-type regulator in massetolide A biosynthesis is yet unknown, but preliminary results showed that overexpression of this gene resulted in an increased production of massetolide A in strain SS101 (data not shown). Downstream of massA, ORFs 3, 4, and 5 were identified, with 76% identity to mannosyltransferase, 69% identity to the melittin resistance protein PqaB, and 50% identity to the Ais protein (aluminum-induced protein), respectively (Fig. ). These three ORFs are also found downstream of viscA in P. fluorescens SBW25, but their role in massetolide A or viscosin biosynthesis, if any, has not been resolved. Located even more downstream of massA are two ABC transporters (ORFs 6 and 7) and a hypothetical protein (ORF 8). Although close homologs of ORFs 6 through 8 were identified downstream of viscA in P. fluorescens SBW25 and in the genomes of other CLP-producing Pseudomonas strains, their role in CLP biosynthesis remains elusive. The ABC transporters flanking massA have relatively low identity (Pseudomonas syringae pv. Syringae ().

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Pseudomonas: Volume 6: Molecular Microbiology, …

The five previous volumes of Pseudomonas series covered the biology of pseudomonads in a wide context, including the niches they inhabit, the taxonomic relations among members of this group, the molecular biology of gene expression in different niches and under different environmental conditions, the analysis of virulence traits in plants, animals and human pathogens as well as the determinants that make some strains useful for biotechnological applications and promotion of plant growth. Pseudomonas volume 6 is intended to collect new information on molecular microbiology, infection and biodiversity. This sixth volume covers the following topics: transcription regulation, virulence control, physiology and metabolism, bacteriology, microbial genetics and genomics. Pseudomonas volume 6 will be of use to researchers working on these bacteria, particularly those studying genomics, physiology, quorum sensing, life styles, metabolism etc. Advanced students in biology, medicine and agronomy will also find this volume a valuable reference during their studies.