Composition of manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles.

The MnPB nanoparticles were prepared using a single-pot, aqueous phase synthesis by addition of iron (II) chloride to a mixture containing manganese chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (III). The resulting MnPB nanoparticles had a mean size of 33±7 nm, measured using high-resolution TEM ( and ), and the nanoparticle lattice parameters corresponded to Prussian blue measured by selected area electron diffraction patterns (). FTIR spectral measurements of the MnPB nanoparticles yielded a broad band at 2,070 cm−1, corresponding to the FeII–CN–FeIII cyanide stretch energy that was also obtained in the spectrum of Prussian blue (without manganese; ). The FTIR spectrum for MnPB did not display a band at 2,149 cm−1 characteristic of MnII–NC–FeIII.

Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticles for …

Manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles for …

Manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles for ..

Our rationale for pursuing nanoparticles is that they offer unique advantages that can be harnessed for molecular imaging of PBTs, including: small sizes (~10–200 nm) that enable the nanoparticles to easily penetrate body barriers and extravasate across the leaky tumor vasculature of PBTs (via the enhanced permeability and retention effect, on account of the abnormal molecular and fluid transport dynamics of these tumors);– high surface area-to-volume ratios that enable attachment of PBT-targeting ligands with high density; and the ability to be visualized via imaging modalities such as MRI or fluorescence.– There are numerous examples in the literature of nanoparticles being used for the imaging and treatment of a variety of cancers, including gold nanoparticles/nanorods/nanoshells, iron oxide nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, dendrimers, polymer-based nanoparticles, and quantum dots.– While a few of these nanoparticles are currently undergoing clinical evaluation,,– their use for molecular imaging of PBTs has been limited, thereby representing an opportunity for the field of nanomedicine.

Example 1 Synthesis of Prussian Blue Nanoparticles Each Utilizing ..

Over the past decade, technological progress made in the field of molecular biology coupled with increased access to tissue samples from PBT patients (obtained via biopsy and/or autopsy) and the development of relevant animal models have improved our understanding of the underlying molecular biology of PBTs., However, thus far, there are no clinically approved, molecularly-specific imaging agents for PBTs, which can be primarily attributed to the challenges of working in the brain and central nervous system, including crossing the blood–brain barrier and penetrating the brain parenchyma. In this paper, we describe a manganese-containing Prussian blue (MnPB) nanoparticle for multimodal molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence-based imaging of PBTs.

The scheme of synthesizing albumin-polymer-based nanoparticles. Figure adapted with permission from [].
226. Quan Q, Xie J, Gao H. . HSA coated iron oxide nanoparticles as drug delivery vehicles for cancer therapy.  2011;8:1669-76

derivatized Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticle ..

Prussian blue nanoparticles have been widely explored MRI contrast agents, which could be stabilized with albumin and loaded with ICG []. The obtained nanoparticle could utilize Prussian blue for MRI and ICG for NIRF-imaging/phototherapy. The resulting MRI/NIRF-guided phototherapeutic nanoparticle exhibited significant tumor growth inhibition without tumor recurrence [].

12. Laurent S, Bridot JL, Elst LV, Muller RN. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications.  2010;2:427-49

Strategies for Preparing Albumin-based Nanoparticles …

77. Liu W, Dahnke H, Rahmer J, Jordan EK, Frank JA. Ultrashort T2* Relaxometry for Quantitation of Highly Concentrated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (SPIO) Nanoparticle Labeled Cells. 2009;61:761-6

General & Introductory Chemistry

57. Varallyay CG, Muldoon LL, Gahramanov S, Wu YJ, Goodman JA, Li X, Pike MM, Neuwelt EA. Dynamic MRI using iron oxide nanoparticles to assess early vascular effects of antiangiogenic versus corticosteroid treatment in a glioma model. 2009;29:853-60