Binding of tRNA to Ribosome: 1 GTP
Protein biosynthesis - Wikipedia
Ribosomes are the cell’s molecular machines, responsible for translating genetic information in messenger RNA into the long strings of amino acids needed to build new proteins. A central tenet of biology has long held that each amino acid added to a peptide chain is specified by an RNA message as it threads its way through the ribosome. But Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) scientists and their colleagues at UCSF and Stanford have discovered that this is not always true.
Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis | Biology I
The new research has uncovered a new mechanism by which ribosomes can synthesize proteins. The studies show that a protein involved in the cell's ribosome quality control system mediates the elongation of peptides that become stalled during protein sysnthesis. Surprisingly, it does this in the absence of both messenger RNA and the ribosome's small, message-reading subunit.
DNA and Protein Synthesis - BioTopics Website
The ribosome is a large molecular complex of RNA and protein. When eukaryotic ribosomes are isolated from cell extracts, two different fractions are obtained, representing two subunits. The smaller 40S subunit binds the messenger RNA that constitutes the protein's genetic blueprint, as well as the transfer RNA that carries each specific amino acid to be added to the growing chainlike protein molecule. The larger 60S subunit catalyzes the formation of the bond between each amino acid and the growing protein chain.
Protein Synthesis and Ribosome Structure: ..
Together, the evidence was convincing. “What all of this was saying was that we were getting a totally unprecedented mechanism for ribosome-mediated protein synthesis,” Weissman says. “Every other time that people have seen the ribosome make or extend proteins, it's been a messenger RNA that's responsible for bringing the tRNA to read out the genetic code, and you need a large and a small subunit. Here we had synthesis with no messenger RNA and no small subunit. And a protein, Rqc2, was responsible for recognizing and recruiting these specific tRNAs.”