The role of RNA in protein synthesis was suspected already in 1939


Frameshift mutations
insertion
deletion
Point Mutations
a single nucleotide (base) changes in the DNA or RNA

DNA
A-T
G-C
C-A
Frameshift Mutations
Insertion
A nucleotide is added to the DNA strand being created, causing a shift in all remaining nucleotides

Deletion
A nucleotide is removed from the DNA strand being created, causing a shift in all remaining nucleotides
Central Dogma
DNA codes for RNA
RNA guides the synthesis of proteins

RNA processing
In comparing DNA code with its transcribed mRNA code, scientists found that the mRNA code was much shorter.

DNA sequences not found in mRNA are called
introns
.

DNA sequences that remain in the final mRNA are called
exons
.

RNA Processing
mRNA code is significantly shorter than the DNA code
The DNA code is interrupted by sequences that are not in the final mRNA sequence known as
introns
.
the coding sequence that remain in the final mRNA are called
exons
.

Protein Synthesis | Rna | Translation (Biology)

From RNA to Protein Synthesis - YouTube

RNA and Protein Synthesis by Ms Schwinge on Prezi

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a mature, copy of a gene that describes the exact sequence in which amino acids should be bonded together to form a protein. Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are responsible for picking up particular amino acids and transferring them to the ribosomes for assembly into polypeptides. Each tRNA molecule contains a triplet nucleotide sequence that can base-pair with a codon on the mRNA. This triplet nucleotide sequence on tRNA that is complementary to the codon of mRNA is called an anticodon. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is used in the manufacture of ribosomes where mRNA and tRNA come together in the synthesis of proteins.

Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

The purpose of this exercise is to become familiar with the structure of nucleic acids, DNA, RNA and to reinforce the role of DNA and RNA in the process of protein synthesis.

Problem in Concept 21: RNA is an intermediary between DNA and protein, DNA from the Beginning.
Now that we’ve described DNA and RNA, it’s time to take a look at the process of protein synthesis

RNA and Protein Synthesis | A-Level Biology Revision Notes

DNA transcription is the process of making a single strand complementary RNA copy of DNA. Data is copied from the DNA to the RNA with the aid of the enzyme RNA polymerase. Using this process, the genetic information stored in the DNA is carried in the form of RNA to other parts of the cell. In eukaryotic cells a gene begins with a promoter region and an initiation code and ends with a termination code. However, the intervening gene sequence contains patches of nucleotides that have no meaning. If they were used in protein synthesis, the resulting proteins would be worthless. Eukaryotic cells prune these segments from the mRNA after transcription. RNA polmerase synthesizes a strand of pre-mRNA that initially includes copies of the meaningful mRNA coding sequences (exons) and the meaningless mRNA coding sequences (introns). Soon after its manufacture, this pre-mRNA molecule has the meaningless introns clipped out and the exons spliced together in the final version of mature mRNA

Teaching Protein Synthesis (Replication, Transcription, and Translation) is a challenge

Protein Synthesis (DNA and RNA)



The DNA sequences that code for proteins are called exons.
DNA is copied in the form of RNA

This first process is called transcription.

The process begins at a section of a gene called a promoter.
Transcription
During protein construction, transfer RNA (tRNA) transfers each amino acid to the ribosome.
Types of RNA
Ribosomes are made up of proteins and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).
Types of RNA
Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries copies of instructions for assembling amino acids into proteins.
Types of RNA
There are three main differences between RNA and DNA:

The sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose.
RNA is generally single-stranded.
RNA contains uracil in place of thymine.
The Structure of RNA
Genes are sections of DNA that code for the production of proteins.

Read and learn for free about the following article: Protein synthesis

RNA and Protein Synthesis Answer Key - …

However,
many
, if not most,
mutations are neutral
, meaning that they have
little or no effect
on the
expression of genes
or the
function of the proteins
for which they code for.
However,
mutations
are also the
source of genetic variability

in a species,
and some of this variation may be
highly beneficial.
One beneficial mutation in particular produces
resistance to HIV
, the virus that causes AIDS.
As A Reminder:
DNA ---> DNA is called replication
DNA ---> mRNA is called Transcription
mRNA ---> proteins (with the help of tRNA and ribosomes) is called Translation
Gene Regulation
Specialization
of
cells
in multicellular organisms is usually due to
different patterns of gene expression
rather than to
differences of the genes themselves.
An
expressed gene
is a gene that is
transcribed into RNA.