peptide synthesis, laboratory use;

Generally, most data on the occurrence of skeletal fluorosis in occupationally exposed workers have come from older studies. Based upon a review of older studies involving aluminium smelter workers in which the number of workers examined was usually small and quantitative data on exposure to airborne fluoride were not always provided, Hodge & Smith (1977) concluded that the "incidence of detectable osteosclerosis was often high" when the levels of fluoride in the air exceeded 2.5 mg/m3 and/or levels of fluoride in the urine of these workers were greater than 9 mg/litre; at airborne concentrations below 2.5 mg/m3 (and levels in the urine of below 5 mg/litre), " years of exposure in potrooms did not produce osteosclerosis." The development of skeletal fluorosis in cryolite workers in Copenhagen was attributed to the intake (from occupational exposure) of between 20 and 80 mg fluoride/day (Grandjean, 1982). Chan-Yeung et al. (1983a) reported finding no definitive signs of skeletal fluorosis in potroom workers employed in an aluminium smelter and exposed to 0.48 mg fluoride/m3.

Laboratorios Synthesis S.A.S. | Colombian Exports Catalog

This is probably due to the much wider use of toluene in consumer products.
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All organisms are exposed to fluoride from natural and/or anthropogenic sources. Very high intakes have been observed in areas worldwide in which the environment is rich in fluoride and where groundwater high in fluoride is consumed by humans. Increased exposure might occur in the vicinity of point sources. Fluoride in dental products is an additional source for many people.

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Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid) is an important industrial compound, with an estimated annual world consumption in excess of 1 million tonnes (Greenwood & Earnshaw, 1984). Hydrogen fluoride is manufactured from calcium fluoride and is used mainly in the production of synthetic cryolite, aluminium fluoride (AlF3), motor gasoline alkylates and chlorofluorocarbons; however, the demand for chlorofluorocarbons is decreasing as a result of efforts to restrict their use. Hydrogen fluoride is also used in the synthesis of uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) and uranium hexafluoride (UF6), both of which are used in the nuclear industry (Neumüller, 1981). It is also used in etching semiconductor devices, cleaning and etching glass, cleaning brick and aluminium and tanning leather, as well as in petrochemical manufacturing processes. Hydrogen fluoride may also be found in commercial rust removers (Upfal & Doyle, 1990).

Van Veen MP (1996) A general model for exposure and uptake from consumer products.
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It has been estimated that, worldwide, almost twice as many people are exposed to fluoride for the prevention of dental caries through the use of toothpastes as from the consumption of controlled fluoridated drinking-water. In many countries, fluoridated toothpastes, which usually contain approximately 1000 mg fluoride/kg, represent more than 95% of total dentifrice sold. The use of these products is considered to be one of the major factors responsible for the gradual decline in the prevalence of dental caries in most industrialized countries. In areas where the prevention of dental caries through the widespread use of fluoridated drinking-water, salt or milk may not be feasible, the use of fluoridated toothpastes remains an effective means of improving dental health.

Reverse Transcription and cDNA Synthesis;

Hydrogen fluoride is an important industrial compound that is used mainly in the production of synthetic cryolite (Na3AlF6), aluminium fluoride (AlF3), motor gasoline alkylates and chlorofluorocarbons, with an annual world consumption in excess of 1 million tonnes. It is also used in etching semiconductor devices, cleaning and etching glass, cleaning brick and aluminium and tanning leather, as well as in commercial rust removers. Calcium fluoride is used as a flux in steel, glass and enamel production, as the raw material for the production of hydrofluoric acid and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, and as an electrolyte in aluminium production. Sodium fluoride is used in the controlled fluoridation of drinking-water, as a preservative in glues, in glass and enamel production, as a flux in steel and aluminium production, as an insecticide and as a wood preservative. Sulfur hexafluoride is used extensively in various electronic components and in the production of magnesium and aluminium. Fluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) and sodium hexafluorosilicate (Na2SiF6) are used for the fluoridation of drinking-water supplies.