What role do human beings play in this hypothesis.

The present study exploits the explanatory power of migratorydistance from East Africa for the cross-sectional variation in ethnic groupexpected heterozygosity in order to advance the empirical analysis of theeffect of diversity on development in two dimensions. First, given thepotential endogeneity between observed genetic diversityand economic development as discussed earlier, the use of genetic diversityvalues predicted by migratory distance from East Africaalleviates concerns regarding endogeneity bias. Specifically, theidentifying assumption being employed here is that distances alongprehistorical human migration routes from Africa have no direct effect oneconomic development during the Common Era. Second, the strong capacity ofmigratory distance in predicting genetic diversity implies that theempirical analysis of the genetic hypothesis proposed in this study need notbe restricted to the 53 HGDP-CEPH ethnic groups that span only 21 countries,especially since data on the outcome variable of interest (i.e., populationdensity in the year 1500 CE) are available for a much larger set ofcountries.

Hypothesis and options are used in the description of beliefs.

Star Office doesn’t have the same examples and wizards as Microsoft products....

This is just a brief example of scientific method.

Consistent with the predictions of the theory, the empirical analysis findsthat the level of genetic diversity within a society has a hump-shaped effect ondevelopment outcomes in the pre-colonial as well as in the modern era, reflectingthe trade-off between the beneficial and the detrimental effects of diversity onproductivity. While the intermediate level of genetic diversity prevalent among theAsian and European populations has been conducive for development, the high degreeof diversity among African populations and the low degree of diversity among NativeAmerican populations have been a detrimental force in the development of theseregions. This paper thus highlights one of the deepest channels in comparativedevelopment, pertaining not to factors associated with the dawn of complexagricultural societies as in influential hypothesis, but to conditions innately related to thevery dawn of mankind itself.

Testing the Ecosystem Productivity- Diversity Hypothesis in a ..

This paper argues that deep-rooted factors, determined tens of thousands ofyears ago, have had a significant effect on the course of economic development fromthe dawn of human civilization to the contemporary era. It advances and empiricallyestablishes the hypothesis that, in the course of the exodus of Homosapiens out of Africa, variation in migratory distance from the cradleof humankind in East Africa to various settlements across the globe affected geneticdiversity and has had a long-lasting hump-shaped effect on the pattern ofcomparative economic development that is not captured by geographical,institutional, and cultural factors.

One such example of this idea, can be portrayed by the life of Lee; a working man in South Korea.

Ecology/Species Richness and Diversity

This section demonstrates the robustness of the effects of geneticdiversity to additional controls for the Neolithic transition timingchannel. In particular, the analysis is intended to alleviate concerns thatthe significant effects of genetic diversity presented in Section 4.2.2,although estimated while controlling for the timing of the NeolithicRevolution, may still capture some latent influence of this otherexplanatory channel if spurious correlations exist between migratorydistance from East Africa and exogenous factors governing the timing of theNeolithic transition. The results from estimating some extendedspecifications, constructed by augmenting with controls for the ultimatedeterminants in the Diamond hypothesis, for log population density in 1500CE are presented in .

Testing the Ecosystem Productivity- Diversity ..

2The underlying hypothesis about the costs and benefits of geneticdiversity is consistent with experimental evidence from the field ofevolutionary biology, reported in Appendix H, based on species that are bothamenable to laboratory experimentation and display a relatively high degree ofsocial behavior in nature. In addition, the hypothesis is consistent withevidence provided by social scientists on the costs and benefits associated withintra-population heterogeneity, primarily in the context of ethnic diversity, asreviewed by .

Does productivity drive diversity or vice versa

A popular hypothesis regarding the benefits of diversity, one thatappears most analogous to the arguments raised in this paper, suggests thatgenetically diverse honeybee colonies may operate more efficiently, byperforming tasks better as a collective, and thereby gain a fitnessadvantage over colonies with uniform gene pools (). Results from the experimentalstudy of provide evidence supporting this hypothesis. Since the channel highlightedby this hypothesis is closely related to the idea proposed in the currentstudy, the remainder of this section is devoted to the Mattila and Seeleyexperiment.

Does species diversity drive productivity or vice versa? …

In particular, using the hypothetical example of a contemporarypopulation comprised of two groups whose ancestors originate from countriesA and B, the overall diversity of thecombined population would be calculated as: