Redshift At Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

The 6 Li abundance observed in metal poor halo stars appears to exhibit a plateau as a function of metallicity similar to that for 7 Li, suggesting a big bang origin. However, the inferred primordial abundance of 6 Li is ∼1000 times larger than that predicted by standard big bang nucleosynthesis for the baryon-to-photon ratio inferred from the WMAP data. Also, the inferred 7 Li primordial abundance is 3 times smaller than the big bang prediction. We here describe in detail a possible simultaneous solution to both the problems of underproduction of 6 Li and overproduction of 7 Li in big bang nucleosynthesis. This solution involves a hypothetical massive, negatively-charged leptonic particle that would bind to the light nuclei produced in big bang nucleosynthesis, but would decay long before it could be detected. An interesting feature of this paradigm is that, because the particle remains bound to the existing nuclei after the cessation of the usual big bang nuclear reactions, a second longer epoch of nucleosynthesis can occur among X-nuclei which have reduced Coulomb barriers. The existence of the X − particles thus extends big bang nucleosynthesis from the first few minutes to roughly five hours. We confirm that reactions in which the hypothetical particle is transferred can occur that greatly enhance the production of 6 Li while depleting 7 Li. We also identify a new reaction that destroys large amounts of 7 Be, and hence reduces the ultimate 7 Li abundance. Thus, big-bang nucleosynthesis in the presence of these hypothetical particles, together with or without an event of stellar processing, can simultaneously solve the two Li abundance problems. Subject headings: cosmological parameters — dark matter — early universe — elementary particles — nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances — stars: Population II 1.

Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Enters the Precision Era – arXiv

In addition, the inferred 7Liprimordial abundance is 3 times smaller than the big bang prediction.

Big Bang Theory: Evolution of Our Universe - Universe …

In order to answer the question "From where did the elements originate?" one must consider two major areas of cosmology. The first being the formation of the Universe and the second being stellar structure, formation, and evolution. Advances in cosmology during the twentieth century have led to the prevailing theory that the Universe was formed from a cataclysmal event commonly called the Big Bang. In examining the spectral analysis of a number of spiral nebulae, Vesto Slipher concluded in 1912, on the basis of measurable Doppler redshifts, that these nebulae were moving away from the Earth. Then in 1915, Albert Einstein published his general theory of relativity which in part predicted that the Universe was expanding. Contrary to his theory, Einstein believed in a static rather than an expanding Universe. It was not until 1922 when a Russian cosmologist and mathematician, Alexander Friedmann, derived a series of equations from Einstein's general relativity equations, predicting that the Universe was expanding. Georges Lemaître, after having verified Friedmann's equations, suggested in 1927 that the Universe began as a "primeval atom", the forerunner of the Big Bang. Additional evidence of an expanding Universe came from an equation derived by Edwin Hubble in 1929 on the basis of observations of galaxies made by him and associates. That equation, now referred to as Hubble's Law, showed a direct relationship between the distance to a galaxy and its recessional velocity. Simply put, Hubble's Law states that as the distance between galaxies increases so does the velocity of their separation. Credit is therefore given to Hubble for elucidating the concept of an expanding Universe.

18/12/2017 · Timeline of the Big Bang Theory

This curriculum unit, entitled "The Origin of the Elements", is intended for eleventh grade students enrolled in my chemistry classes who attend an inner city Philadelphia public high school. It will be used in conjunction with unit three of the School District of Philadelphia's standardized curriculum for chemistry. As outlined in the school district's , the entire unit "Periodic Table and Periodic Trends" is meant to be completed within a three week period. During that time, the students will examine the role electrons play in chemical behavior, electron configuration, in addition to becoming familiar with the organization and uses of the periodic table. Although most high school textbooks briefly mention the occurrence and/or abundance of individual elements of interest on Earth, they rarely give any insight into the origin of the elements. Therefore, the aim of this unit is to present the students with a basic understanding of how the elements were formed. This will include current information on Big Bang also referred to as primordial, stellar and supernova nucleosynthesis. In doing so, the students will also be introduced to the history of the Big Bang and stellar evolution as a means of stimulating interest in astronomy and cosmology. To accomplish these goals, approximately six to eight days will be allocated for its completion. In addition, this unit will be in alignment with several of the Pennsylvania Academic Standards for Science and Technology, including standards: 3.1.12 "Unifying Themes", 3.2.12 "Inquiry and Design", 3.4.12 "Physical Science, Chemistry, and Physics", and 3.7.12 "Technological Devices".

“This is a very important step in maintaining the Big Bang Theory,” Nick Suntzeff, a Texas A&M astronomer, told me.
6Li and 7Li Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Problems

Big‐Bang Nucleosynthesis: lithium problems and scalar ..

An interesting feature is that, because the particle gets boundto the existing nuclei after the cessation of the usual big bang nuclearreactions, a second longer epoch of nucleosynthesis can occur amongX-nuclei with reduced Coulomb barriers.

Big Bang Nucleosynthesis : The Primordial Lithium …

This is called the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

Utilizing the Cornell Method of note taking and cooperative learning strategies, such as brainstorming, numbered heads together, reciprocal teaching, and team teaching, the first few days of the curriculum unit will focus on the students researching the Big Bang theory, stellar evolution, Big Bang, stellar, and supernova nucleosynthesis. As an assessment project, each group of students will be given a different list of astrophysicists and mathematicians from whom they could choose to write a report. Additionally, students will be able to create timelines involving the Big Bang and the expansion of the Universe, as well as creating posters illustrating different concepts of Big Bang, stellar, or supernova nucleosynthesis.

The X-Solution to the 6 Li and 7 Li Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Problems: ..

Nucleosynthesis does not provide evidence to support the Big Bang.

Wedescribe a possible simultaneous solution to both of these lithiumproblems that is based on a hypothetical massive, negatively chargedleptonic particle that binds to the light nuclei produced in big bangnucleosynthesis, but decays long before it can be detected.