Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Enters the Precision Era – arXiv
Big Bang Theory: Evolution of Our Universe - Universe …
In order to answer the question "From where did the elements originate?" one must consider two major areas of cosmology. The first being the formation of the Universe and the second being stellar structure, formation, and evolution. Advances in cosmology during the twentieth century have led to the prevailing theory that the Universe was formed from a cataclysmal event commonly called the Big Bang. In examining the spectral analysis of a number of spiral nebulae, Vesto Slipher concluded in 1912, on the basis of measurable Doppler redshifts, that these nebulae were moving away from the Earth. Then in 1915, Albert Einstein published his general theory of relativity which in part predicted that the Universe was expanding. Contrary to his theory, Einstein believed in a static rather than an expanding Universe. It was not until 1922 when a Russian cosmologist and mathematician, Alexander Friedmann, derived a series of equations from Einstein's general relativity equations, predicting that the Universe was expanding. Georges LemaÃÂ®tre, after having verified Friedmann's equations, suggested in 1927 that the Universe began as a "primeval atom", the forerunner of the Big Bang. Additional evidence of an expanding Universe came from an equation derived by Edwin Hubble in 1929 on the basis of observations of galaxies made by him and associates. That equation, now referred to as Hubble's Law, showed a direct relationship between the distance to a galaxy and its recessional velocity. Simply put, Hubble's Law states that as the distance between galaxies increases so does the velocity of their separation. Credit is therefore given to Hubble for elucidating the concept of an expanding Universe.
18/12/2017 · Timeline of the Big Bang Theory
This curriculum unit, entitled "The Origin of the Elements", is intended for eleventh grade students enrolled in my chemistry classes who attend an inner city Philadelphia public high school. It will be used in conjunction with unit three of the School District of Philadelphia's standardized curriculum for chemistry. As outlined in the school district's , the entire unit "Periodic Table and Periodic Trends" is meant to be completed within a three week period. During that time, the students will examine the role electrons play in chemical behavior, electron configuration, in addition to becoming familiar with the organization and uses of the periodic table. Although most high school textbooks briefly mention the occurrence and/or abundance of individual elements of interest on Earth, they rarely give any insight into the origin of the elements. Therefore, the aim of this unit is to present the students with a basic understanding of how the elements were formed. This will include current information on Big Bang also referred to as primordial, stellar and supernova nucleosynthesis. In doing so, the students will also be introduced to the history of the Big Bang and stellar evolution as a means of stimulating interest in astronomy and cosmology. To accomplish these goals, approximately six to eight days will be allocated for its completion. In addition, this unit will be in alignment with several of the Pennsylvania Academic Standards for Science and Technology, including standards: 3.1.12 "Unifying Themes", 3.2.12 "Inquiry and Design", 3.4.12 "Physical Science, Chemistry, and Physics", and 3.7.12 "Technological Devices".