synthesis of diclofenac | Polyethylene Glycol | Polymers
Petrochemicals are a finite resource which will become more expensive as oil becomes scarce, and their use is associated with the release of greenhouse gases that lead to global warming. Producing more chemicals using biotechnology could reduce our dependence on natural gas and oil and reduce the environmental impact of the chemical industry. Some chemicals, such as 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (citric acid), have for many years been routinely produced on the million-tonne scale using biotechnology, as the chemical synthetic routes are complex and expensive. Other notable examples are described in this unit but there are many other processes still in the developmental stage, with chemicals being produced in small reactors on the scale of a few tonnes. A huge amount of research is being done by chemists, biotechnologists and engineers to make these reactions more efficient and cost-effective.
Polyethylene terephthalate | chemical ..
Polyethylene consumes more than half of the world's ethylene supply
For example, the citrate reduction method of synthesis more popularly known as the Turkevich method only requires varying concentrations of sodium citrate to vary GNP size.
Session 2: - Department of Chemistry
This occurs, for example, in the synthesis of the Nylon family of polymers in which the eliminated H2O molecule comes from the hydroxyl group of the acid and one of the amino hydrogens: