Synthesis of amino acids and drug candidates from acet...

In addition, terrestrial plants have evolved specialized regions of cell walls, such as the plant cuticle and lignified cell walls that are essential for water retention and water conduction, respectively.

Cell wall defective variant of Nocardia rubra.

Biomass Recalcitrance: Deconstructing the Plant Cell Wall for Bioenergy

Plant cell wall: structure and biosynthesis | HSTalks

Drakakaki G, Park E, Worden N. Probing post-Golgi trafficking and polysaccharide deposition with chemical genomics and proteomics. Plant Cell Walls, Gordon Research Conference, Colby College. August 5-10, 2012. Poster.

Fourth Conference on Biosynthesis of Plant Cell Wall

Drakakaki G. “Dissection of endomembrane trafficking and cell wall deposition” University of Vermont, USA. April 4, 2013. Invited talk.

of Nevada Reno, NV Effects of atmospheric elevated CO2 on cell wall composition and biosynthesis

Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis, S

To test the effect of heterologous expression of PtrMYB152 on potential target genes, we examined the expression of a suite of secondary cell wall biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis PtrMYB152 expressing lines that exhibited altered cell wall properties. The analyses were carried out using seedlings, pooled from three independent lines for each construct, to ensure tissue of uniform age for each genotype. Using seeding rather the stems also allowed us to identify genes that may be directly activated by PtrMYB152. As shown in , the transgenic lines had increased expression of several lignin biosynthetic genes including 4CL1 (At1g51680), HCT (At5g48930), C3H1 (At2g40890), CCoAOMT1 (4g34050) and CAD6 (Atg37970). This suggests that PtrMYB152 regulate secondary cell wall biosynthesis by activating a subset of secondary cell wall biosynthetic genes.

Cell Walls and Plant Growth/Cell Expansion, D

As shown in , total lignin content in the transgenic plants was elevated, with an 24% and 18% increase for 35:PtrMYB152 and PtrCesA8:PtrMYB152 relative to wild-type respectively. We further examined the relative amounts of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) monomers in the inflorescence stem cell walls, which showed that the S/G monomer ratio was higher in the transgenic plants than wild-type plants (). The significantly increased interfascicular fiber cells wall thicknesses of the transgenic lines may explain this alteration, since such cells develop the bulk of secondary walls in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem, and fiber cells are enriched in S-lignin.

The introduction of the amino acids gives cationic character to the new rhamnolipid derivatives.

Biosynthesis of the cell wall in carrot cells ..

In Arabidopsis, secondary cell wall biosynthesis is controlled by a transcription factor network. Several closely related NAC domain transcription factors, including SND1, NST1, NST2, VDN6 and VND7 work together to activate several downstream transcription factor genes, and the downstream transcription factors directly activate secondary cell wall components biosynthesis genes,,,. Most of the downstream transcription factors identified so far are R2R3 MYB transcription factors, which play important roles in regulating secondary cell wall biosynthesis,. In poplar, several R2R3 MYB transcription factors have also been shown to be involved in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis,,,,.

Drakakaki G. “Towards unraveling cell wall formation” University of Talca, Chile. May 27, 2015. Invited talk.

The structure of plant cell walls

In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), there are nearly 200 genes encoding MYB transcription factors, which are classified according to the number of N-terminal DNA binding domain repeats. R2R3 MYB proteins containing two N-terminal DNA binding domain repeats are the largest MYB transcription factor subfamily with 126 members,. R2R3 MYB transcription factors control several aspects of plant growth and development. For example, GLABRA1 (GL1) and WEREWOLF (WER) are involved in determining cell fate during trichome and root hair cell differentiation, respectively,, while AtMYB77 regulates lateral root formation, and ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) regulates shoot morphogenesis and leaf patterning. Recently, several R2R3 MYB transcription factors have been found to regulate secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis,,. Similar findings were observed in Populus spp. (poplar) and Eucalyptus spp. (Eucalyptus),,.

hordei alters papillaecell wall composition and susceptibilityLittle Alan, University of Adelaide , Australia

Cellulose comprises the major polymer of the plant cell wall

Drakakaki G. Dissecting cell wall deposition during cytokinesis and cell elongation 5th International Conference on Plant Cell Wall Biology (PCWB2014), July 27 -31, Palm Cove, Queensland, Australia. Contributed talk by Drakakaki.